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Valve Material Specifications (A216/351/352/105/182)

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Table of Contents

Learn about the key ASTM material specifications for valves. A cast valve body is manufactured by pouring liquid metals into molds and is common for valves above 2 inches in diameter. A forged valve body is produced by forging and machining solid steel. The key specifications for cast steel valves body materials are ASTM A216 (WCA, WCB, WCC), ASTM A352 LCB/LCC (low-temperature), and ASTM A351 CF8/CF8M. ASTM A105, A350 and A182 cover body materials for small size (or high pressure) forged valves.  

CAST STEEL VALVES

1505908241-7177-Valvebody

First, let’s clarify the difference between cast vs. forged valve, even if it may seem obvious: cast valves feature a cast body, forged valves have a forged body. That’s it! The difference relates to the valve body material construction technique, i.e. steel forging or casting.

Let’s now review the key cast valve body materials.

ASTM A216 WCA, WCB, WCC (CARBON STEEL HIGH-TEMP.)

The ASTM A216 specification covers 3 grades of carbon steel (WCA, WCB, and WCC), which feature slight differences in terms of chemical and mechanical properties. These grades for cast valves bodies match carbon steel pipes in grades A53, A106, API 5L.

ASTM A216 steel castings shall be heat treated and can be manufactured in the annealed, or normalized, or normalized and tempered conditions. The surface of steel castings shall be free of adhering elements such as sand, cracks, hot tears, and other defects.

ASTM A216 carbon steel valves (cast), material chart
ASTM A216 GRADECMnPSSiCuNiCrMoV
WCA UNS J025020.25(1)0.70(1)0.040.0450.600.300.500.500.201.00
WCB UNS J030020.30(2)1.00(2)0.040.0450.600.300.500.500.201.00
WCC UNS J025030.25(3)1.20(3)0.040.0450.600.300.500.500.201.00

Notes:

  1. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum Carbon content, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the specified maximum is allowed up to a maximum of 1.10%.
  2. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum Carbon content, an increase of 0.04% Mn above the specified maximum is allowed up to a maximum of 1.28%.
  3. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum Carbon content, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the specified maximum is allowed to a maximum of 1.40%.

ASTM A352 LCB/LCC (CARBON STEEL LOW-TEMP.)

The ASTM A352 specification covers multiple grades of low-temperature carbon steel (called LCA, LCB, LCC, LC1, LC2, LC3, LC4, LC9, CA6NM) for cast steel valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-containing parts.

Chemical composition of A352 cast valves Gr. LCA/LCB/LCC (valve material chart):

GRADECSiMnCrMoNiCuNbV
ASTM A352 LC30.150.60.653.5
ASTM A352 LCA0.250.60.70.50.20.50.30.03
ASTM A352 LCB0.30.610.50.20.50.30.03
ASTM A352 LCC0.250.61.20.50.20.50.03

ASTM A351 CF8/CF8M (STAINLESS STEEL)

The ASTM A351 specification covers austenitic steel castings for valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-containing parts.

The most common grades are ASTM A351 CF3, CF8 (SS304), and CF8M (SS316).

The steel shall be made by the electric furnace process with or without separate refining such as argon-oxygen decarburization.

Any ASTM A351 cast part shall receive heat treatment followed by a quench in water or rapid cooling. The steel shall conform to the chemical and mechanical requirements set by the specification.

ASTM A351 stainless steel valves, chemical composition

ASTM A351 GRADEUNSCMnSiSPCrNiMoNbVNCu
CF3+CF3AJ92700.031.520.040.0417.0-21.08.0-11.00.5
CF8+CF8AJ92600.081.520.040.0418.0-21.08.0-11.00.5
CF3M+CF3MAJ92800.031.51.50.040.0417.0-21.09.0-13.02.0-3.0
CF8MJ92900.081.51.50.040.0418.0-21.09.0-12.02.0-3.0
CF3MNJ928040.031.51.50.040.0417.0-21.09.0-13.02.0-3.00.10-.20
CF8CJ927100.081.520.040.0418.0-21.09.0-12.00.5-1
CF10J929500.04-0.101.520.040.0418.0-21.08.0-11.00.5
CF10MJ929010.04-0.101.51.50.040.0418.0-21.09.0-12.02.0-3.0
CH8J93400.081.51.50.040.0422.0-26.012.-15.00.5
CH10J934010.04-0.101.520.040.0422.0-26.012.-15.00.5
CH20J934020.04-0.201.520.040.0422.0-26.012.0-15.00.5
CK20J942020.04-0.201.51.750.040.0423.0-27.019.0-22.00.5
HK30J942030.25-0.351.51.750.040.0423.0-27.019.0-22.00.5
HK40J942040.35-0.451.51.750.040.0423.0-27.019.0-22.00.5
HT30N080300.25-0.3522.50.040.0413.0-17.033.0-37.00.5
CF10MC0.11.51.50.040.0415.0-18.013.0-16.01.7-2.25-2
CN7MN08070.071.51.50.040.0419.0-22.027.5-30.52.0-3.03.0-4.0
CN3MNJ946510.03210.010.0420.0-22.023.5-25.56.0-.00.18-.260.75
CE8MN0.0811.50.040.0422.5-25.58.0-11.03.0-.50.10-.30
CG-6MMNJ937900.064.0-6.010.030.0420.5-23.511.5-13.51.50-3.00.10-.300.10-.300.20-.40
CG8MJ93000.081.51.50.040.0418.0-21.09.0-13.03.0-4.0
CF10SMnNJ929720.17.0-9.03.50-.500.030.0616.0-18.08.0-9.00.08-.18
CT15CN081510.05-0.150.15-.500.50-.500.030.0319.0-21.031.0-.00.50-.50
CK-3MCuNJ932540.0251.210.010.04519.5-20.517.5-19.56.0-7.00.18-.240.50-1.0
CE20NJ928020.21.51.50.040.0423.0-26.08.0-.00.50.08-.20
CG3MJ929990.031.51.50.040.0418.0-21.09.0-.03.0-4.0
Notes:

  1. Grade CF8C shall have a Niobium content 8 times above the Carbon but not over 1.00%.
  2. Grade CF10MC shall have a Niobium content 10 times above the Carbon but not over 1.20%.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES CAST STEEL VALVES CHART

Minimum Steel Mechanical PropertiesModulusApproximate
ASTM CAST GRADE Tensile strength
(psi)
Yield strength
(psi min)
Elongation
(at 2 inches)
Reduction of Area (%)  
ASTM A216 Grade WCB70,00036,000223527.9137-1 87
ASTM A352 Grade LCB65,00035,000243527.9137-1 87
ASTM A217 Grade C590,00060,000183527.4241 Max.
ASTM A217 Grade WC165,00035,000243529.9215 Max.
ASTM A217 Grade WC670,00040,000203529.9215 Max.
ASTM A217 Grade WC970,00040,000203529.9241 Max.
ASTM A352 Grade LC365,00040,000243527.9137
ASTM A217 Grade C1290,00060,000183527.4180-240
ASTM A351 Grade CF-865,00028,0003528140
ASTM A351 Grade CF-8M70,00030,0003028.3156-170
ASTM A126 Class B31,000160-220
ASTM A126 Class C41,000160-220
ASTM A395 Type 60-45-1560,00045,0001523-26143-207
ASTM A439 Type D-2B58,00030,0007148-211
ASTM B6230,00014,000201713.555-65*
ASTM B143 Alloy 1A40,00018,00020201575-85*
ASTM B147 Alloy 8A65,00025,000202015.498*
ASTM B148 Alloy 9C75,00030,00012 min.1217150
(Weldable Grade)65,00032,5002523120-170
ASTM A494 (Hastelloy B)72,00046,0006
ASTM A494 (Hastelloy C)72,00046,0004
Stellite No. 6121,00064,00001.feb30.4
ASTM B211 Alloy 20911-T344,00036,0001510.295
ASTM B16 1/2 Hard45,00015,00075014
ASTM B21 Alloy 46460,00027,0002255
AISI 12L 1479,00071,0001652163
ASTM A108 Grade 101869,00048,0003862143
(Suitable for ASTM A193 Grade B7 bolt material)135,000115,000226329.9255
ASTM A276 Type 30285,00035,000607028150
ASTM A276 Type 30485,00035,0006070149
ASTM A276 Type 31680,00030,000607028149
ASTM A276 Type 316L81,00034,00055146
ASTM A276 Type 41075,00040,000357029155
ASTM A461 Grade 630135,000105,000165029275-345
Alloy K500 (K Monel)100,00070,0003526175-260
ASTM B335 (Hastelloy B)100,00046,00030
ASTM B336 (Hastelloy C)100,00046,00020

RECOMMENDED SERVICE (CAST VALVE MATERIALS)

The table shows the most common materials for cast valves and their recommended service:

MATERIAL GROUPMATERIAL GRADERECOMMENDED SERVICE
High-temperature Carbon SteelASTM A216 Grade WCBNon-corrosive fluids as water, oil, and gases at temperatures range -20°F (-30°C) and +800°F (+425°C)
Low-temperature Carbon SteelASTM A352 Grade LCBLow temperature to -50°F (-46°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
Low-temperature Carbon SteelASTM A352 Grade LC1Low temperature to -75°F (-59°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
Low-temperature Carbon SteelASTM A352 Grade LC2Low temperature to -100°F (-73°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
3.1/2% Nickel SteelASTM A352 Grade LC3Low temperature to -150°F (-101°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
1.1/4% Chrome 1/2% Moly SteelASTM A217 Grade WC6Non-corrosive fluids as water, oil, and gases at temperatures range -20°F (-30°C) and +1100°F (+593°C).
2.1/4% ChromeASTM A217 Grade C9Non-corrosive fluids as water, oil and gases at temperatures range -20°F (-30°C) and +1100°F (+593°C).
5% Chrome 1/2% MolyASTM A217 Grade C5Mild corrosive or erosive applications and non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+649°C).
9%Chrome
1% Moly
ASTM A217 Grade C12Mild corrosive or erosive applications and non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+649°C).
12% Chrome SteelASTM A487 Grade CA6NMCorrosive application at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +900°F (+482°C).
12% ChromeASTM A217 Grade CA15Corrosive application at temperatures up to +1300°F (+704°C)
Stainless steel 316ASTM A351 Grade CF8MCorrosive or either extremely low or high-temperature non-corrosive services between -450°F (-268°C) and +1200°F (+649°C). Above +800°F (+425°C) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.
Stainless steel 347ASTM 351 Grade CF8CMainly for high temperature, corrosive applications between -450°F (-268°C) and +1200°F (+649°C). Above +1000°F (+540°C) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.
Stainless steel 304ASTM A351 Grade CF8Corrosive or extremely high temperatures non-corrosive services between -450°F (-268°C) and +1200°F (+649°C). Above +800°F (+425°C) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.
Stainless steel 304LASTM A351 Grade CF3Corrosive or non-corrosive services to +800F (+425°C).
Stainless steel 316LASTM A351 Grade CF3MCorrosive or non-corrosive services to +800F (+425°C).
Alloy-20ASTM A351 Grade CN7MGood resistance to hot sulfuric acid to +800F (+425°C).
MonelASTM 743 Grade M3-35-1Weldable grade. Good resistance to corrosion by all common organic acids and salt water. Also highly resistant to most alkaline solutions to +750°F (+400°C).
Hastelloy BASTM A743 Grade N-12MWell suited for handling hydrofluoric acid at all concentrations and temperatures. Good resistance to sulphuric and phosphoric acids to +1200°F (+649°C).
Hastelloy CASTM A743 Grade CW-12MGood resistance to span oxidation conditions. Good properties at high temperatures. Good resistance to sulphuric and phosphoric acids to +1200°F (+649°C).
InconelASTM A743 Grade CY-40Very good for high-temperature service. Good resistance to spangly corrosive media and atmosphere to +800°F (+425°C).
BronzeASTM B62Water, oil or gas: up to 400°F. Excellent for brine and seawater service.

We recommend purchasing the ASTM A216 specification from the ASTM website or the IHS store to get a complete understanding of this topic.

FORGED STEEL VALVES

Forged valves materials

Forged valves feature a body obtained by forging monolithic blocks of steel

Forged bodies are common for small diameter valves (generally, below 2 inches) or for high-pressure valves that require extreme robustness and solidity.  Forged bodies are less prone to leakages than cast valve body materials.

The ASTM A105, ASTM A350, and ASTM A182 specifications cover materials for carbon, low-alloy, and stainless steel forged valves. 

The chemical and mechanical properties of the ASTM carbon, alloy, stainless forged materials (A105, A350, A182) are illustrated in this article.

RECOMMENDED SERVICE

The table shows the most common materials for forged valves and their respective recommended service:

Forged Material Grade

ASTM GradeMaterial NameRecommended Service
30419%Chrome 9%NickelApplications at temperatures up to +1000°F (+538°C).
31619%Chrome, 10%Nickel 2%MolyApplications at temperatures up to +1000°F (+538°C).
32118%Chrome, 10%Nickel with TitaniumApplications at temperatures up to +800°F (+427°C).
34718%Chrome, 10%Nickel with Columbium347 has good intergranular-corrosion resistance and is resistant to atmospheric conditions between temperatures of +800°F(+427°C) and +1650°F(+899°C).
400MonelThis nickel alloy has good corrosion resistance, good weldability and, high strength. Great mechanical properties at subzero temperatures up to +1000°F (+538°C).
41013%Chrome 1/2%Moly410 is the basic martensitic stainless. It has good impact strength, corrosion and scaling resistance up to +1200°F (+649°C).
42013%Chrome, 1%Nickel 1/4%MolyFull corrosion resistance only in the hardened or hardened and stress relieved conditions. The temperature should be below +800°F (+427°C).
600InconelThis nickel-chromium alloy has good oxidation resistance at higher temperatures to +2000°F (+1093°C)
625InconelThis nickel-chromium alloy has good carburization and oxidation in high-resistance at higher temperatures to +2000°F (+1093°C).
825IncoloyAlloy 825 has a high level of corrosion resistance in both reducing and oxidizing environments and good mechanical properties at temperatures up to +1000°F (+538°C).
17-4PH15-1/2%Chrome 4-1/2%NickelGood corrosive resistance properties at temperatures up to +600°F (+316°C).
304H18%Chrome 9%NickelApplications at temperatures up to +800°F (+427°C).
304L19%Chrome, 10%Nickel Low CarbonApplications at temperatures up to +800°F (+427°C).
316H18%Chrome, 8%Nickel with MolybdenumApplications at temperatures up to +800°F (+427°C).
316L19%Chrome, 10%Nickel 2%Moly, Low CarbonApplications at temperatures up to +800°F (+427°C).
317L25%Chrome, 21%Nickel 3/4%Moly317L has superior corrosion resistance in difficult environments and can be used at temperatures between +1700°F (+927°C) to +2200°F (+1204°C).
440C17%Chrome 3/4%MolyThis grade is used in the hard plus tempered condition. For best corrosion resistance, the tempering temperature should be below +800°F (+427°C).
800H/HTIncoloyThis nickel-chromium alloy has good carburization and oxidation in high-resistance and normally used in temperatures above +1100°F (+593°C).
A105N1/4% Max Carbon SteelNon-corrosive applications including water, oil and, gases at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +800°F (+427°C).
ALLOY 2020%Chrome, 35%Nickel 2-1/2%MolyGood resistance to hot sulfuric acid to +800°F (+425°C).
C276HastelloyThis nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy has excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media and corrosion resistant to ambient temperatures.
F111-1/4%Chrome 1/2%MolyNon-corrosive applications including water, oil and, gases at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1100°F (+593°C).
F222-1/4%Chrome 1%MolyNon-corrosive applications including water, oil and, gases at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1100°F (+593°C).
F55%Chrome 1/2%MolyNon-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+650°C).
F5122%Chrome, 5%Nickel 3%MolyF51 is a super duplex stainless steel. Good  Moderate to good corrosion resistance in a variety of environments. Service to +600°F (+316°C).
F5325%Chrome, 7%Nickel 4-1/2%MolyF53 is a super duplex stainless steel. This material has excellent corrosion resistance in a variety of environments. Service to +600°F (+316°C).
F5525%Chrome, 7%Nickel 3-1/2%MolyThis material combines high mechanical strength and good ductility with excellent corrosion resistance in environments with temperatures up to +600°F (+316°C).
F99%Chrome 1%MolyNon-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+650°C).
F919%Chrome 1%MolyNon-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+650°C).
K500MonelThis nickel alloy has good corrosion resistance. Monel K500 has great mechanical properties at subzero temperatures up to about +480°C.
LF2Low Temp Carbon SteelNon-corrosive applications at temperatures from -50°F (-46°C) to +800°F (+427°C).
X-750InconelThis nickel-chromium alloy has good resistance to corrosion and oxidation along with high tensile and creep-rupture properties at temperatures up to +1300°F (+700°C).

CROSS REFERENCE CHART: ASTM CAST VS. FORGED MATERIALS

Material GroupForged GradeEquivalent Cast Grade
Carbon SteelA181-Gr.1 A181-Gr.2
Moderate, high temp. serviceA105-Gr.1 A105-Gr.2A216-WCA WCB WCC
Cold temp. serviceA350-LF1 A350-LF2A352-LCB, LCC
Carbon -1/2 Moly Alloy Steel
High Temp ServiceA182-F1A217-WC1
Cold Temp ServiceA352-LC1
1/2Cr-1/2Mo Alloy SteelA182-F2
1/2Cr-1/2Mo-1 Alloy SteelA217-WC4
3/4Cr-1 Mo-3/4NI Alloy SteelA217-WC5
1Cr-1/2Mo Alloy SteelA182-F12
1Cr-1 Mo-Vd Alloy SteelA404-F24A389-C24
1-1/4Cr-1/2Mo Alloy SteelA182-F11A217-WC6
1-1/4Cr-1/2Mo-Vd Alloy SteelA389-C23
2-1/4Cr-1/2Mo-Vd Alloy SteelA182-F22A217-WC9
3Cr-1 Mo Alloy SteelA182-F21
5Cr-1/2Mo Alloy SteelA182-F5
5Cr-1/2Mo-Si Alloy SteelA217-Gr.C5
7Cr-1/2Mo Alloy SteelA182-F7
9Cr-1 Mo Alloy SteelA182-F9A217-Gr.C12
13Cr Alloy SteelA182-F6A351-CA15
Type 304 Stainless Steel
StandardA182-F304A351-Gr.CF8 CF8a
Low CarbonA182-F304-LA351-Gr.CF3 CF3a
High Temp ServiceA182-F304-HA351.Gr.CF10
Type 309 Stainless Steel
Type 310 Stainless SteelA182-F310
Type 316 Stainless Steel
StandardA182-F316A351-Gr.CF8M
Low CarbonA182-F316-LA351-Gr.CF3M
High Temp ServiceA182-F316-HA351.Gr.CF10
Type 317 Stainless SteelA403-WP317
Type 321 Stainless Steel
StandardA182-F321
High Temp ServiceA182-F321-H
Type 347 Stainless Steel
StandardA182-F347
High Temp ServiceA182-F347-HA351-Gr.CF8C
Type 348 Stainless Steel
StandardA182-F348
High Temp ServiceA182-F348-H
20 Ni-8 Cr AlloyA182-F10
2 Nickel Alloy Steel
Low Temp ServiceA352-LC2

 

VALVE TRIM

The trim of a valve is the collective name for all the (replaceable) parts of a valve in direct contact with the fluid (“wet parts”).

The valve trim includes, generally, the disc/plug, the stem, the cage, the seat ring, the gaskets and the packing (the trim configuration depends on the type of valve). The API 600 trim chart designates the typical combinations with a conventional number (example, Trim 8).

The API 600 specification designates some typical combinations of the valve trim materials with a number (API trim #1, trim #2, etc.).

The selection of the correct combination of the trim materials is one of the most important decisions to specify valves correctly.

API TRIM #TRIM MATERIALSEATDISC/WEDGEBACKSEATSTEM
1410410410410410
2304304304304304
3F310310310310310
4Hard 410Hard 410410410410
5HardfacedStelliteStellite410410
5AHardfacedNi-CrNi-Cr410410
6410 and Cu-NiCu-NiCu-Ni410410
7410 and Hard 410Hard 410Hard 410410410
8410 and HardfacedStellite410410410
8A410 and HardfacedNi-Cr410410410
9MonelMonelMonelMonelMonel
10316316316316316
11MonelStelliteMonelMonelMonel
12316 and HardfacedStellite316316316
13Alloy 20Alloy 20Alloy 20Alloy 20Alloy 20
14Alloy 20 and HardfacedStelliteAlloy 20Alloy 20Alloy 20
15304 and HardfacedStelliteStellite304304
16316 and HardfacedStelliteStellite316316
17347 and HardfacedStelliteStellite347347
18Alloy 20 and HardfacedStelliteStelliteAlloy 20Alloy 20

API TRIM MATERIAL SELECTION

TRIMRECOMMENDED SERVICE
13% Cr, Type 410 Stainless SteelFor oil and oil vapors and general services with heat-treated seats and wedges.
13% Cr, Type 410 plus HardfacingUniversal trim for general service requiring long service life up to 1100°F (593°C).*
Type 316 StainlessFor liquids and gases which are corrosive to 410 Stainless Steel, up to 1000°F (537°C).*
MonelFor corrosive service to 842°F (450°C) such as acids, alkalies, salt solutions, etc.
Alloy 20For corrosive services such as hot acids -49°F to 608oF (-45°C to 320°C).
NACESpecially treated 316 or 410 trim combined optionally with B7M Bolts and 2HM nuts to meet NACE MR-01-75 requirements.
Full StelliteFull hard-faced trim, suitable for abrasive & severe services up to 1200°F (650°C).*

* Depends upon base material grade

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2 Responses

  1. Hi Gent:
    I have two valves 1.5″ class 800, the material of the first is A105N AACV & Material of second is A350LF2 CL1QT UU4
    these valves will be welded on nipple with following material SA / A106B.
    Please advise if the second valve will be accepted to weld on this nipple & according any standard please.

    Best Regards

  2. As you mentioned, forged steel valves are for high pressure situations. My brother recently started working in a factory and there are many valves that need to be working to make things run smoothly. It would be interesting to see everything in action.

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