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Welcome to Projectmaterials Wiki

#1 Knowledge Base for Pipes, Valves, Fittings

Steel pipes for process piping and pipelines

Steel Pipe Types: Seamless, ERW, LSAW

Learn about the 3 types of steel pipes used in the petrochemical industry: seamless, ERW (electric resistance welding) and LSAW (longitudinal submerged arc welding). A seamless pipe is manufactured by drawing a solid steel billet through a piercing rod. Welded pipes are produced by cutting, bending, welding coils (ERW) or steel plates (LSAW). SEAMLESS PIPE Seamless pipes are produced starting from steel billets, that are… read more »

Flanges for Pipes and Piping Systems

In piping applications, a flange is used to join a pipe with other equipment (another pipe, a valve or a pump). Pipe flanges may be classified by shape (weld neck, blind, socket weld, threaded, etc), by facing type (RF, FF, RTJ), by material grade (cast and forged), and by specification (the ANSI/ASME B16.5 and B16.47 specifications… read more »

Pipe Branch Fittings (Weldolet/Thredolet/Sockolet)

What are branch connections (or pipe branch outlet fittings aka “Olets”)? Olet fittings are a family of forged products used to make 45 or 90 degrees integrally reinforced branch connections (deviations) from a run pipe (also called, header pipe) to a branch pipe (outlet pipe). The common types of branch fittings are Weldolet, Thredolet, Sockolet, Latrolet,… read more »

What is a Mill Test Certificate (EN 10204 2.1, 3.1, 3.2)?

A Mill Test Certificate (MTC), or Mill Test Report (MTR), is issued by a manufacturer to certify the chemical and mechanical features of a product and its compliance to the applicable norms and technical specifications. Typically, Mill Test Certificates conform to the EN 10204 standard and are related to steel products. MILL TEST CERTIFICATE A… read more »

Types of Valves Used in the Oil & Gas Industry

Learn about the different types of valves used in the oil and gas industry and their differences: API and ASME gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly designs (manual or actuated, with forged and cast bodies). Briefly said, valves are mechanical devices used in piping applications to control, regulate and open/close the fluid’ s flow and… read more »

Buttweld Fittings in Piping (ASME B16.9)

Buttweld fittings are used to change the pathway of a pipeline (elbows), reduce/increase its bore size (reducers), branch (tees, cross) or blind it (butt weld cap). BW fittings are used for pipes above 2 inches in diameter, whereas socket weld and threaded fittings are used for smaller size pipes.

Non-Destructive Testing Types (LP/MP/UT/RX)

Non-destructive test (abbreviated, NDT) used to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of a welded connection without damaging the equipment. The most common non-destructive tests are visual inspection, penetrating fluids, magnetic particles, radiographic (RX) and ultrasonic examination (UT). TYPES OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING In this article, we review the most common non-destructive testing techniques used to… read more »

BW Fittings Materials: ASTM A234, A403, A815, B366

A complete overview of ASTM materials for buttweld fittings: ASTM A234 (carbon and low-alloy steel), ASTM A403 (stainless steel), ASTM A815 (duplex and super duplex), and ASTM B366 (nickel alloys). The article reviews the chemical and mechanical properties of these pipe fittings specifications and their common uses. BUTTWELD FITTINGS MATERIALS Carbon steel buttweld fittings are common… read more »

Valve Parts (Body, Bonnet, Trim)

Which are the key parts of a valve? It is a complex mechanical device manufactured by assembling a number of different components: the body (the pressure containing shell, made of cast or forged steel, available with flanged, threaded or socket weld connection to pipes), the bonnet, the trim (the disc, the seat, the stem, and the… read more »

Valve Material Specifications (A216/351/352/105/182)

Learn about the key ASTM material specifications for valves. A cast valve body is manufactured by pouring liquid metals into molds and is common for valves above 2 inches in diameter. A forged valve body is produced by forging and machining solid steel. The key specifications for cast steel valves body materials are ASTM A216 (WCA, WCB, WCC),… read more »

Gate Valve for Piping (API 600, 602, 603)

What is a gate valve? It is a shut-off device to open and close the flow of the fluid conveyed by a piping system (or a pipeline). A gate valve is a bi-directional valve, as the fluid may flow in either direction. The installation of this type of valve creates a modest pressure drop in the pipeline, lower… read more »

Buttweld Fittings Dimensions (Elbow, Reducer, Tee)

The ASME/ANSI B16.9 specification covers the dimensions and the tolerances of carbon and alloy butt weld fittings. The MSS-SP 43 specification integrates ASME B16.9 to cover stainless steel and nickel alloy pipe fittings. In this article, we show the dimensions and weights of buttweld elbows, tees, and reducers. BUTTWELD FITTINGS DIMENSIONS ASME B16.9 45/90 Deg…. read more »

Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5)

What is a stud bolt? Stud bolts for flanges consist of a fully threaded steel rod and two heavy hexagonal steel nuts. Stud bolts are inserted in the flange holes and tightened to seal a flanged joint. The number, the length, the diameter of the stud bolts required for a flanged connection depend on the… read more »

Socket Weld and Threaded Fittings (ASME B16.11)

How to define forged fittings? The term “forged fittings” refers to two families of pipe fittings (socket weld and threaded) used for small bore pipes and piping systems (generally below 4 inches in diameter for Class 3000, and below 2 inches for fittings in class 6000 and 9000). These fittings are manufactured by forging and… read more »

Stud Bolts Charts (Sizes, Weights, and Torque)

3 important stud bolts charts: 1- stud bolts dimensions in inches and millimeters (number, diameter, length of stud bolts for ASME flanges of different diameter and rating); 2- stud bolts weight (in kilograms and pounds for metric and imperial bolts, by diameter and length); 3- stud bolt torque chart (tightening sequence and load to ensure… read more »


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