Inconel (Nickel Alloy Pipes)

Nickel Alloy Pipes: Nickel 200, Inconel 625, Incoloy 800/825, Monel, Hastelloy C276, Alloy20

Inconel (Nickel Alloy Pipes)

Nickel Alloy Pipes: Nickel 200, Inconel 625, Incoloy 800/825, Monel, Hastelloy C276, Alloy20

Nickel alloy pipes (Inconel, Hatelloy, Alloy 20, Monel, Nickel 200) are renowned for their exceptional resistance to corrosion, high-temperature performance, and strength, making them ideal for challenging environments encountered in the petrochemical, aerospace, marine, and nuclear industries. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifies various grades of nickel alloy pipes, each tailored for specific applications and environments. This article explores the diverse range of ASTM nickel alloy pipe grades, highlighting their unique characteristics and applications.



Nickel alloy pipes are high-performance piping materials made from alloys primarily consisting of nickel along with various combinations of other elements such as chromium, molybdenum, copper, and iron. These additional elements are carefully selected and blended to achieve specific properties that enhance the performance of the pipes in various applications.

Nickel Alloy Pipes
Nickel Alloy Pipes

The defining characteristic of nickel alloy pipes is their exceptional resistance to corrosion, high temperatures, and oxidative environments, making them ideal for use in harsh conditions where conventional stainless steel or carbon steel materials might fail.


  • Corrosion Resistance: Nickel alloys are renowned for their ability to withstand corrosion in a wide range of chemical environments, including acidic, alkaline, and chloride-containing environments. This makes them suitable for use in chemical processing, petrochemical industries, and marine applications.
  • High-Temperature Performance: Many nickel alloys maintain their strength, ductility, and resistance to oxidation at temperatures that would compromise or degrade most other materials. This characteristic is crucial for applications in aerospace, power generation, and heat treatment industries.
  • Durability: Nickel alloy pipes offer excellent durability and longevity, even in demanding operational conditions. Their robustness reduces the need for frequent replacements and maintenance, contributing to cost savings over the life of a project.
  • Versatility: The wide range of nickel alloy compositions available allows for the selection of materials tailored to specific environmental conditions and operational requirements. From high-strength, high-temperature applications to those requiring superior corrosion resistance, there is a nickel alloy suited to almost any challenging industrial scenario.


Given their outstanding properties, nickel alloy pipes are used in a variety of demanding applications, including:

  • Chemical Processing: Handling of aggressive chemicals, acids, and solvents at various temperatures and pressures.
  • Oil and Gas Industry: Applications include downhole piping, processing equipment, and offshore oil drilling and production where resistance to sour gas environments is required.
  • Power Generation: Used in superheaters, re-heaters, and other high-temperature components of power plants, including nuclear reactors.
  • Aerospace: Components exposed to high temperatures and corrosive fuels or oxidizing environments.
  • Desalination and Water Treatment: Piping systems that resist chloride-induced corrosion, making them suitable for seawater desalination plants.


Alloy Type/NameCharacteristicsApplications
Nickel-Copper (Monel®)Excellent corrosion resistance in seawater; resistant to a range of acids and alkalis; strong and ductile.Marine engineering, chemical processing equipment, oil & gas valves, and pumps.
Nickel-Chromium (Inconel®)High-temperature strength; excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion.Aerospace, nuclear reactors, exhaust systems, high-temperature applications.
Nickel-Chromium-Iron (Incoloy®)Good strength; excellent resistance to oxidation and carburization at high temperatures.Furnace components, chemical processing, petroleum refining.
Nickel-Molybdenum (Hastelloy® B)Exceptional resistance to reducing acids; highly resistant to stress-corrosion cracking.Chemical processing industries, especially with corrosive acids.
Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum (Hastelloy® C)Superior resistance to oxidizing media; excellent performance in mixed acid/chloride environments.Pollution control, chemical processing, waste treatment.
Nickel-Iron-Chromium (Alloy 800/Incoloy® 800 series)Resistant to oxidation and carburization; moderate sulfur resistance at high temperatures.High-temperature industrial applications, power generation.
Precipitation Hardened Nickel AlloysHeat treatable for higher strength without compromising toughness.Aerospace components, oil & gas industry for high-strength, corrosion-resistant parts.
Nickel-titanium (Nitinol)Unique shape memory and superelastic properties; excellent corrosion resistance; biocompatibility.Medical devices, actuators, and orthodontic equipment.
Nickel-Silicon (Ni-Si Alloys)High strength and electrical resistivity; good corrosion resistance.Electrical heating elements, resistance wire, control resistors.
Nickel-Iron (Alloy 42, Kovar®)Controlled thermal expansion properties; matches glass and ceramic expansion for sealing.Glass-to-metal seals, electronic tube components, aerospace and semiconductor applications.
Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt (Waspaloy, Haynes®)Excellent strength at high temperatures; resistance to oxidation and corrosion.Gas turbine engines, aerospace components, and high-temperature fasteners.


Nickel Alloy GradeASTM SpecificationDescription
Nickel 200ASTM B160, B161, B162Pure nickel with excellent corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties.
Monel® 400ASTM B164, B165, B127Nickel-copper alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of media.
Inconel® 600ASTM B166, B167, B168A nickel-chromium alloy with good oxidation resistance at high temperatures.
Inconel® 625ASTM B443, B444, B446Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with outstanding strength and toughness from cryogenic to high temperatures.
Hastelloy® C-276ASTM B574, B575, B622Nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in severe environments.
Alloy 20ASTM B473, B464, B468Nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy designed to resist corrosion in sulfuric acid environments.
Incoloy® 800ASTM B408, B409, B564Nickel-iron-chromium alloy with good strength and resistance to oxidation and carburization.
Alloy 400 (Monel®)ASTM B564, B127, B164Nickel-copper alloy with high strength and excellent corrosion resistance in a range of acidic and alkaline environments.
NitinolASTM F2063Nickel-titanium alloy is known for its unique shape memory and superelastic properties.
WaspaloyASTM B637The nickel-chromium-cobalt alloy used for its strength and stability at high temperatures.
Hastelloy® B-2ASTM B333, B335Nickel-molybdenum alloy with exceptional resistance to reducing environments.
Hastelloy® XASTM B435, B572High-temperature, nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum alloy with good oxidation resistance.


The market for nickel-alloy pipes is way more concentrated than other, more common, grades for pipes. Below is a list of some well-known manufacturers and suppliers in the industry:

Special Metals Corporation

A leading global producer, Special Metals is known for its extensive range of nickel alloys, including Inconel, Incoloy, Monel, and Nimonic alloys. They offer a wide variety of forms, including pipes.

Haynes International

Specializing in corrosion-resistant and high-temperature alloys, Haynes International produces high-quality Hastelloy and other nickel-based alloys suitable for challenging environments.

Sandvik Materials Technology

A global industrial group offering advanced stainless steels and special alloys such as Sanicro for corrosion-resistant applications. Sandvik provides a wide range of nickel alloy pipes and tubes.

VDM Metals

With a broad portfolio of nickel alloys and high-performance materials, VDM Metals is known for its innovative alloy solutions tailored to demanding applications.

ATI (Allegheny Technologies Incorporated)

ATI produces a diverse range of specialty metals, including nickel-based alloys designed for high temperatures and corrosive environments. Their products are used in aerospace, oil and gas, and chemical processing industries.


Although primarily known for its stainless steel products, Outokumpu also offers high-performance nickel alloys for various applications, emphasizing quality and sustainability.


Aperam is a global player in the stainless steel and specialty alloys sector, including nickel alloys, focusing on sustainability and innovation.

Jindal Stainless

One of the largest stainless steel conglomerates in India, Jindal Stainless also ventures into nickel alloy products for diverse industrial applications.



Alloy NameNickel (Ni)Chromium (Cr)Molybdenum (Mo)Iron (Fe)Copper (Cu)Aluminum (Al)Titanium (Ti)Carbon (C)Other Elements
Inconel 6007214-176-100.15
Inconel 62558-6320-238-105 max0.40.40.10Nb 3.15-4.15
Inconel 71850-5517-212.8-3.3Balance0.2-0.80.65-1.150.08Nb+Ta 4.75-5.5
Hastelloy C-2765714.5-16.515-174-70.01W 3-4.5, V 0.35 max
Monel 40063 min2.5 max28-340.3
Alloy 2032-3819-212-331-443-40.07Nb 0.1-0.3
Hastelloy B-2Balance1 max26-302 max0.02
Incoloy 80030-3519-2339.5 min0.15-0.600.15-0.600.1
Incoloy 82538-4619.5-23.52.5-3.522 min1.5-30.2 max0.6-1.20.05Ti 0.6-1.2

Please note:

  • The percentages are approximate and can vary based on the specific alloy formulation and manufacturer.
  • “Balance” indicates that the remaining composition is primarily nickel, after accounting for the specified elements.
  • Some alloys may contain additional elements in trace amounts not listed in this table, which can affect their properties and applications.
  • “Nb” stands for Niobium, “Ta” for Tantalum, “W” for Tungsten, and “V” for Vanadium, which are elements that can significantly influence the alloy’s characteristics.

This table provides a snapshot of the diverse compositions of major nickel alloys and underscores the complexity and tailored properties of these advanced materials for specific industrial applications.

NICKEL 200/201

Nickel 200 pipes are made from commercially pure nickel that possesses high thermal and electrical conductivities, and magnetic properties, and is highly resistant to various corrosive environments.

With a nickel content of approximately 99.6%, Nickel 200 (UNS N02200) is characterized by its exceptional resistance to caustic alkalis and other corrosive media at different temperatures.

This grade of nickel is designated as UNS N02200, and it is similar to Nickel 201 (UNS N02201), which is a low-carbon version of Nickel 200 and is preferred for applications where low gas content and low vapor pressure are required.

Key Properties of Nickel 200 Pipes

  • Corrosion Resistance: Nickel 200 pipes offer excellent resistance to corrosion by distilled and natural waters, as well as by many organic substances. They are also resistant to caustic alkalis and to a range of acidic environments, except for those containing oxidizing acids.
  • High Thermal Conductivity: These pipes can efficiently transfer heat, making them suitable for heat exchangers and other applications requiring good thermal conductivity.
  • Electrical Conductivity: Nickel 200’s high electrical conductivity makes it ideal for electronic applications.
  • Magnetism: Nickel 200 is magnetic at room temperature, which can be advantageous in certain applications.
  • Fabrication and Weldability: Nickel 200 can be easily fabricated and welded, offering flexibility in manufacturing processes.

Applications of Nickel 200 Pipes

Due to their corrosion resistance and high thermal and electrical conductivities, Nickel 200 pipes find applications in various industries:

  • Chemical Processing: Used in the manufacture and handling of sodium hydroxide, particularly at temperatures above 300┬░C where steel would succumb to stress-corrosion cracking.
  • Food Processing: Their corrosion resistance makes them suitable for food processing equipment and handling of foods, synthetic fibers, and alkalis.
  • Electrical and Electronic Industries: Utilized in the production of electrical components, including leads, battery components, and heat exchangers.
  • Aerospace: Due to their thermal conductivity, these pipes are used in aerospace applications where high-temperature resistance is required.
  • Marine: Their resistance to seawater corrosion makes them applicable in marine engineering and desalination plants.

Considerations and Limitations

While Nickel 200 pipes offer excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, they are not recommended for use in environments where they might be exposed to sulfur compounds that can induce stress-corrosion cracking. Additionally, they should be carefully selected for use in oxidizing acid environments, where higher alloyed materials might be more suitable.

Nickel 200 pipes represent an optimal choice for industries requiring materials that offer corrosion resistance, high thermal and electrical conductivities, and effective performance in a wide temperature range. Their versatility and durability make them an invaluable resource in the chemical processing, food processing, electrical, aerospace, and marine industries, among others. Despite their specific limitations, the careful selection of Nickel 200 pipes based on the application environment can provide efficient and reliable solutions to a broad spectrum of industrial challenges.

MONEL® 400/500 PIPES

Monel pipes, made from a family of nickel-copper alloys, are renowned for their exceptional strength, corrosion resistance, and durability in various aggressive environments. Monel’s unique composition, primarily of nickel and copper, with small amounts of iron, manganese, carbon, and silicon, contributes to its notable properties. The most commonly used grade in this family is Monel 400, although other grades, like Monel K-500, also find specific applications due to their enhanced properties.

Key Properties of Monel Pipes

  • Corrosion Resistance: Monel pipes exhibit excellent resistance to a wide range of corrosive environments, including seawater, hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, and alkalis. They are particularly valued for their performance in marine and chemical processing environments.
  • Strength: Despite their high nickel content, Monel pipes possess a higher strength level than many other nickel alloys, especially at elevated temperatures. This makes them suitable for high-pressure applications.
  • Toughness: Monel maintains good toughness over a considerable temperature range, making it useful in cold environments where other materials might become brittle.
  • Thermal Conductivity: Monel has good thermal conductivity, beneficial in applications requiring heat exchange or dissipation.

Common Applications of Monel Pipes

  • Marine Engineering: Due to their excellent resistance to seawater corrosion, Monel pipes are used in marine applications, including shipbuilding, seawater intakes, and marine fixtures.
  • Chemical Processing: Monel’s resistance to acids and alkalis makes it suitable for transporting corrosive chemicals, manufacturing chemical equipment, and handling organic compounds.
  • Oil and Gas: Monel pipes are used in oil refinery piping, sour gas service, and offshore oil rig applications, where their corrosion resistance is a valuable asset.
  • Power Generation: Utilized in feedwater heaters, steam generators, and other components exposed to corrosive substances and high temperatures.

Grades of Monel and Their Specific Uses

  • Monel 400: The most widely used Monel alloy, offering excellent general corrosion resistance, good weldability, and moderate to high strength. It is the standard material for marine and chemical processing applications.
  • Monel K-500: Enhanced strength and hardness due to the addition of aluminum and titanium, making it suitable for chains, cables, springs, valve trim, fasteners for marine service, and oil well drilling collars.

Installation and Fabrication

Monel pipes can be welded, machined, and formed using standard methods, although working with Monel requires experience due to its work-hardening properties. Welding Monel pipes typically involves using Monel filler metal to ensure the joint has the same corrosion resistance and strength as the base metal.

Monel pipes represent a versatile solution for challenging environments, offering a unique combination of corrosion resistance, strength, and durability. Their ability to perform under corrosive conditions, coupled with their mechanical properties, makes them an invaluable material in industries ranging from marine engineering to chemical processing. Despite their higher cost compared to standard stainless steel, their longevity and reliability in harsh environments often justify the initial investment, making them a preferred choice for critical applications.


Cupronickel pipes are made from an alloy of copper, nickel, and strengthening elements such as iron and manganese. This combination results in a material that exhibits superior corrosion resistance, particularly in marine environments, alongside excellent thermal stability and durability. Cupronickel alloys are most commonly found in two variations: 90/10 (90% copper, 10% nickel) and 70/30 (70% copper, 30% nickel), with the numbers denoting the proportions of copper and nickel in the alloy.

Key Properties of Cupronickel Pipes

  • Corrosion Resistance: Cupronickel pipes offer excellent resistance to seawater corrosion, including resistance to biofouling, making them ideal for marine applications.
  • Thermal Stability: These pipes maintain their mechanical properties over a wide temperature range, making them suitable for applications involving thermal cycling or where temperature stability is required.
  • Good Fabricability: Cupronickel alloys can be easily welded, fabricated, and formed, allowing for their use in various complex shapes and configurations.
  • Antimicrobial Properties: The copper content in cupronickel provides antimicrobial properties, which can be beneficial in reducing biofouling in marine environments and maintaining cleanliness in potable water systems.

Applications of Cupronickel Pipes

Given their unique combination of properties, cupronickel pipes find extensive use in several critical areas:

  • Marine Engineering: Used extensively in shipbuilding for piping systems, heat exchangers, and condensers due to their corrosion resistance to seawater.
  • Desalination Plants: Applied in the multi-stage flash distillation process as heat exchanger tubing, where resistance to corrosion and biofouling is crucial.
  • Offshore Oil and Gas: Utilized in offshore oil and gas platforms for fire water systems, hydraulic lines, and cooling water circuits.
  • Power Generation: Employed in cooling systems and condensers in power plants, especially in coastal locations where seawater is used as a coolant.
  • Coinage and Musical Instruments: Beyond industrial applications, cupronickel alloys are also used in the production of coins and in the manufacture of certain musical instruments, taking advantage of their corrosion resistance and aesthetic appeal.

Fabrication and Machining

Cupronickel pipes can be fabricated using standard metalworking techniques, including welding, soldering, and bending. The material’s work-hardening characteristics require attention during machining to prevent excessive tool wear. Precautions should be taken to avoid galvanic corrosion when cupronickel is in contact with different metals, typically by using appropriate insulating materials or coatings.

Considerations for Use

The choice between the 90/10 and 70/30 alloys often depends on the specific environmental conditions and mechanical requirements of the application, with the 70/30 alloy generally offering higher corrosion resistance and strength at the cost of slightly lower thermal conductivity and higher material expense.

Cupronickel pipes are a preferred material in marine and other corrosive environments, valued for their corrosion resistance, durability, and thermal stability. Their wide range of applications, from shipbuilding to desalination and beyond, showcases the versatility and reliability of cupronickel alloys in facing some of the most challenging conditions encountered in industry and engineering.


INCONEL® 600, designated as UNS N06600, is a nickel-chromium alloy that is known for its excellent resistance to oxidation at high temperatures and to corrosion in a wide range of corrosive environments, including those containing sulfur compounds and chloride ions.

This makes INCONEL® 600 pipes highly suitable for demanding applications where both heat and corrosion resistance are required.

Key Properties of INCONEL® 600 Pipes

  • Corrosion Resistance: INCONEL┬« 600 offers outstanding resistance to chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking, corrosion by high-purity water, and caustic corrosion. The alloy’s resistance to corrosion by many organic and inorganic compounds, along with its excellent resistance to chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking, makes it a versatile material.
  • High-Temperature Resistance: The high chromium content provides excellent resistance to oxidation, allowing INCONEL┬« 600 to maintain strength and resistance to scaling at high temperatures up to 2000┬░F (1093┬░C).
  • Strength: The solid solution strengthening of chromium and nickel in INCONEL┬« 600 provides high strength and good workability under a wide range of temperatures.
  • Fabricability: Despite its strength, INCONEL┬« 600 can be easily formed and welded, making it suitable for a variety of fabrication processes.

Applications of INCONEL® 600 Pipes

INCONEL┬« 600’s unique combination of properties makes it suitable for a range of challenging environments:

  • Chemical Processing: Pipes and tubes made of INCONEL┬« 600 are used in reactors and vessels where resistance to heat and corrosion is essential.
  • Heat Treatment: Employed in retorts, muffles, and other components in furnaces due to its resistance to oxidation and scaling at high temperatures.
  • Aerospace: Used in exhaust liners, turbine seals, and other aerospace components where high-temperature resistance is crucial.
  • Nuclear: INCONEL┬« 600 is utilized in the nuclear field for reactor cores and control rod components due to its resistance to corrosion by high-purity water.
  • Power Generation: Applied in superheater tube supports and steam generator tubing, where its resistance to heat and corrosion provides reliability under the demanding conditions of power plants.

Considerations for Use

While INCONEL® 600 offers excellent high-temperature strength and corrosion resistance, it is essential to consider the specific environment in which it will be used to ensure its suitability. For example, the alloy may experience embrittlement when exposed to sulfur compounds at high temperatures. Therefore, understanding the operational conditions is critical for selecting the appropriate alloy for your application.

INCONEL® 600 pipes are an excellent choice for applications requiring a combination of high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and durability. Their versatility makes them ideal for use in a wide range of industrial sectors, including chemical processing, aerospace, nuclear, and power generation. With proper selection and maintenance, INCONEL® 600 pipes can provide reliable performance in some of the most challenging environments.


INCONEL┬« 625, designated as UNS N06625, is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with an addition of niobium that acts with the molybdenum to stiffen the alloyÔÇÖs matrix, providing high strength without a strengthening heat treatment. This alloy is known for its exceptional resistance to a wide range of severely corrosive environments, high-temperature effects such as oxidation and carburization, and its high strength and toughness from cryogenic temperatures to 1800┬░F (982┬░C). INCONEL┬« 625 pipes leverage these properties, making them ideal for demanding applications across various industries.

Key Properties of INCONEL® 625 Pipes

  • Corrosion Resistance: INCONEL┬« 625 offers outstanding resistance to chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking, reducing environments, and oxidizing conditions. This includes resistance to seawater, pitting, and crevice corrosion, making it suitable for marine applications.
  • High-Temperature Performance: The alloy maintains its strength over a wide temperature range. Its resistance to oxidation and carburization at high temperatures is particularly noteworthy.
  • Strength and Toughness: The unique composition of INCONEL┬« 625 provides high tensile, creep, and rupture strength across a wide temperature range, including cryogenic temperatures.
  • Fabricability: Despite its strength, INCONEL┬« 625 can be welded and formed relatively easily, which is beneficial for complex designs and installations.

Applications of INCONEL® 625 Pipes

The combination of corrosion resistance, high-temperature capability, and strength makes INCONEL® 625 pipes suitable for a broad range of applications:

  • Oil and Gas: Used in offshore oil and gas rigs for brine heaters, seawater piping, and underwater equipment due to its excellent corrosion resistance in seawater.
  • Aerospace: Applied in exhaust systems, engine thrust-reverser systems, and special seawater applications due to its high strength and resistance to oxidation.
  • Chemical Processing: INCONEL┬« 625 pipes are utilized in reactor cores and control systems where resistance to corrosive substances is required.
  • Nuclear Industry: Suitable for reactor core and control rod components in nuclear water reactors due to its resistance to a wide range of corrosive elements and high-temperature conditions.
  • Power Generation: Used in superheater tubing and in heat exchangers that require excellent corrosion resistance and strength at high temperatures.

Considerations for Use

While INCONEL┬« 625 offers exceptional performance in many harsh environments, it’s important to carefully consider the specific conditions of each application, including potential exposure to corrosive substances and the range of operational temperatures. Selection should be based on a thorough understanding of the environmental conditions to ensure the alloyÔÇÖs properties are fully leveraged for long-term reliability and performance.

INCONEL® 625 pipes represent a superior choice for challenging environments where a combination of corrosion resistance, high-temperature capability, and strength are crucial. Their wide use in industries such as oil and gas, aerospace, chemical processing, nuclear, and power generation highlights their versatility and effectiveness in facing some of the most demanding conditions encountered in industrial applications. With proper selection and maintenance, INCONEL® 625 pipes can offer durable and reliable performance, contributing significantly to the success and efficiency of various projects.

Difference between Inconel 600® and Inconel 625® Pipes

Inconel 600┬« and Inconel 625┬« are both high-performance nickel-chromium alloys used extensively across various industries for their exceptional resistance to corrosion and high temperatures. Despite these similarities, they differ significantly in composition, properties, and applications, making each suitable for specific environments and challenges. HereÔÇÖs a detailed comparison:

  • Inconel 600┬«: Primarily composed of nickel (approx. 72%), chromium (approx. 14-17%), and iron (6-10%), Inconel 600 is designed for high strength and good corrosion resistance, particularly to alkaline solutions and sulfur compounds.
  • Inconel 625┬«: Contains a higher concentration of nickel (approx. 58-62%), along with significant amounts of chromium (approx. 20-23%) and molybdenum (approx. 8-10%). Additionally, it includes niobium (approx. 3.15-4.15%), which acts with the molybdenum to stiffen the alloyÔÇÖs matrix and provide high strength without a need for heat treatment.
  • Corrosion Resistance: While both alloys offer excellent corrosion resistance, Inconel 625┬« is superior in resisting a wider range of environments, including seawater and chloride ion stress-corrosion cracking, thanks to its higher molybdenum and niobium content.
  • High-Temperature Performance: Both alloys perform well at high temperatures, but Inconel 625┬« offers enhanced resistance to oxidation and carburization in extreme environments due to its specific composition.
  • Strength and Toughness: Inconel 625┬« benefits from the additional elements of molybdenum and niobium, providing higher tensile, creep, and rupture strength across a broader temperature range, including cryogenic temperatures.
  • Inconel 600┬« Pipes: Widely used in furnace components, chemical processing, food processing equipment, and nuclear engineering. ItÔÇÖs particularly valued for its performance in high-temperature applications where resistance to sulfur compounds and alkaline solutions is required.
  • Inconel 625┬« Pipes: Utilized in more demanding environments that require exceptional strength and corrosion resistance, such as oil and gas extraction, marine engineering, aerospace components, and chemical processing equipment, especially where exposure to high chloride levels, acidic environments, or extreme temperatures is common.


HASTELLOY® C-276 is a nickel-molybdenum-chromium superalloy with an addition of tungsten, designed to exhibit exceptional corrosion resistance in a wide range of severe environments. This alloy is known for its outstanding performance in resisting pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. HASTELLOY® C-276 (UNS N10276) is one of the most versatile corrosion-resistant alloys available, making pipes manufactured from this material highly sought after for critical industrial applications where aggressive chemicals are present.

Key Properties of HASTELLOY® C-276 Pipes

  • Corrosion Resistance: HASTELLOY┬« C-276 pipes offer exceptional resistance to a wide variety of chemical environments, including strong oxidizers such as ferric and cupric chlorides, hot contaminated media (organic and inorganic), chlorine, formic and acetic acids, acetic anhydride, and seawater and brine solutions.
  • High-Temperature Performance: While HASTELLOY┬« C-276 is not primarily known for its high-temperature strength compared to other high-temperature alloys, it maintains excellent corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures.
  • Versatility: The alloy can handle many different chemical environments, from reducing to oxidizing, performing better than the majority of conventional stainless steels and nickel alloys.
  • Weldability: HASTELLOY┬« C-276 can be welded by common methods used for nickel alloys, retaining much of its corrosion resistance and strength near welds, making it suitable for complex fabrications.

Applications of HASTELLOY® C-276 Pipes

Given their superior corrosion resistance, HASTELLOY® C-276 pipes find usage in a variety of challenging industrial applications:

  • Chemical Processing: Used in reactors, heat exchangers, and columns that involve corrosive chemicals.
  • Pollution Control: Applications include scrubbers and ducting systems for controlling industrial emissions.
  • Pulp and Paper Production: Handles bleaching processes and other corrosive substances used in paper manufacturing.
  • Waste Treatment: Utilized in systems for processing hazardous and toxic wastes, where corrosion resistance is critical.
  • Pharmaceutical Industry: Applied in reactors and equipment that must resist corrosion from aggressive chemicals.
  • Power Generation: Used in flue gas desulfurization systems for coal-fired power plants.

Considerations for Use

While HASTELLOY┬« C-276 pipes offer exceptional performance in corrosive environments, it’s essential to consider the specific conditions of each application, including temperature, pressure, and chemical composition, to ensure optimal performance and longevity. The cost of HASTELLOY┬« C-276 is higher than that of many stainless steels and other alloys, making it important to assess whether its advanced properties are required for the application at hand.

HASTELLOY® C-276 pipes represent a premium choice for industries facing extreme corrosion challenges. Their unparalleled resistance to a wide spectrum of chemical environments, combined with their durability and weldability, make them an invaluable asset in maintaining the integrity and efficiency of industrial operations. Whether for chemical processing, pollution control, or waste management, HASTELLOY® C-276 offers a reliable solution where failure is not an option, ensuring long-term operational success.


Alloy 20, also known as Carpenter 20 or UNS N08020, is a nickel-iron-chromium austenitic alloy that incorporates copper and molybdenum. Its unique composition was designed specifically to offer excellent corrosion resistance in acidic environments, particularly those containing sulfuric acid. This makes Alloy 20 pipes highly valued in industries where exposure to such corrosive conditions is common.

Key Properties of Alloy 20 Pipes

  • Corrosion Resistance: Alloy 20 is especially known for its resistance to sulfuric acid, but it also shows excellent resistance to a wide range of chemicals, including phosphoric acid, nitric acid, and chlorides. Its chromium, molybdenum, and copper content contribute to its superior resistance to both general corrosion and pitting.
  • Ease of Fabrication: Despite its high alloy content, Alloy 20 can be easily fabricated, similar to other austenitic stainless steels. It can be welded, machined, and formed using standard methods, making it versatile for various applications.
  • Mechanical Properties: Alloy 20 pipes offer good mechanical properties at both ambient and elevated temperatures, including high strength and toughness.

Applications of Alloy 20 Pipes

Alloy 20 pipes are utilized in a variety of sectors where their corrosion-resistant properties are essential:

  • Chemical and Petrochemical Processing: Alloy 20 is used in equipment for the manufacture and handling of sulfuric acid, as well as other chemicals where corrosion resistance is crucial.
  • Pharmaceuticals: The alloy’s resistance to corrosion makes it suitable for processing pharmaceutical products, where purity and contamination prevention are paramount.
  • Food and Dye Production: Its excellent resistance to corrosion in acidic environments makes it ideal for use in food processing equipment and dye manufacturing.
  • Power Generation: Alloy 20 is used in flue-gas desulfurization systems in power plants where sulfuric acid is a by-product.
  • Synthetic Rubber and Plastics Production: The pipes are used in reactors, mixers, and other equipment involved in the production processes where corrosive materials are handled.

Considerations for Use

While Alloy 20 pipes are designed to combat corrosion in acidic environments effectively, it’s essential to consider the specific conditions they will be exposed to, including temperature, concentration of the acid, and presence of other corrosive substances. Alloy 20 is known for its excellent performance in sulfuric acid environments, but for applications involving highly oxidizing conditions, alloys with higher chromium and molybdenum contents might be more suitable.

Alloy 20 pipes represent a specialized solution for industries facing challenges with corrosive substances, particularly in acidic environments. Their unique composition provides a blend of excellent corrosion resistance, ease of fabrication, and robust mechanical properties, making them a preferred choice for a wide range of applications. Whether it’s handling harsh chemicals in the petrochemical industry, ensuring purity in pharmaceutical manufacturing, or resisting acidic corrosion in food processing, Alloy 20 offers a reliable material option to ensure operational integrity and longevity.


INCOLOY® 800, designated as UNS N08800, is a nickel-iron-chromium alloy known for its stability, strength, and resistance to oxidation and carburization at high temperatures. This combination of elements provides the alloy with excellent performance characteristics that make INCOLOY® 800 pipes a preferred choice for high-temperature industrial applications.

Key Properties of INCOLOY® 800 Pipes

  • High-Temperature Strength: INCOLOY┬« 800 maintains its structural integrity in high-temperature environments, resisting creep and rupture. It is effective for use in applications with temperatures up to about 1100┬░F (593┬░C).
  • Corrosion Resistance: The high chromium content of INCOLOY┬« 800 enhances its resistance to oxidation and carburization, two common forms of high-temperature corrosion.
  • Resistance to Chloride Stress-Corrosion Cracking: Although not as resistant as some other nickel alloys, INCOLOY┬« 800 offers moderate resistance to chloride stress-corrosion cracking.
  • Thermal Expansion: The alloy has a relatively low coefficient of thermal expansion compared to austenitic stainless steels, which is beneficial in applications where dimensional stability is critical under varying temperatures.

Applications of INCOLOY® 800 Pipes

INCOLOY® 800 pipes are used in a variety of high-temperature applications where their resistance to oxidation and carburization is particularly valued:

  • Petrochemical and Chemical Processing: Used in heat exchangers, cracking furnaces, and piping systems where resistance to harsh chemicals and high temperatures is required.
  • Power Generation: Components in coal gasification units and superheater tubing in power plants benefit from the alloyÔÇÖs resistance to high-temperature corrosion.
  • Thermal Processing Equipment: Furnace components, such as muffles, retorts, and conveyor systems, use INCOLOY┬« 800 for its ability to withstand high temperatures without degrading.
  • Nuclear Power: Steam generator tubing in pressurized water reactors, where high-temperature stability and resistance to aggressive media are essential.

Variants of INCOLOY® 800

There are several modified versions of INCOLOY® 800, including INCOLOY® 800H (UNS N08810) and INCOLOY® 800HT (UNS N08811), which include controlled carbon levels and an addition of aluminum and titanium to further enhance high-temperature properties. These variants offer improved creep resistance and are used in similar applications where enhanced performance is required.

Considerations for Use

While INCOLOY® 800 pipes offer significant advantages in high-temperature applications, it is essential to consider the specific environmental conditions and stresses the material will face, including potential exposure to corrosive substances and cyclic temperature variations. Proper material selection, including the choice of alloy variant (800, 800H, or 800HT), ensures optimal performance and longevity of the piping system.

INCOLOY® 800 pipes are a reliable solution for high-temperature industrial applications, offering a balanced combination of strength, corrosion resistance, and stability under thermal cycling. Their versatility and performance in challenging environments make them a valuable material in industries ranging from chemical processing to power generation and beyond, where operational reliability and efficiency are paramount.


Nitinol, a portmanteau of Nickel (Ni) and Titanium (Ti), plus the Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL) where it was discovered, is a unique shape memory alloy known for its remarkable ability to return to a predetermined shape when heated above a certain temperature. This property, coupled with its superelasticity at certain temperatures, makes Nitinol an exceptionally versatile material. Nitinol pipes leverage these distinctive characteristics, finding applications in various innovative fields.

Key Properties of Nitinol Pipes

  • Shape Memory Effect: Nitinol can undergo deformation at one temperature but return to its original, undeformed shape when heated above its transformation temperature. This property is exploited in applications requiring actuators or self-actuating mechanisms.
  • Superelasticity: Also known as pseudoelasticity, this property allows Nitinol to withstand significant deformation without permanent deformation when it is at a temperature above its transformation point. This makes Nitinol pipes highly resilient to mechanical stresses.
  • Biocompatibility: Nitinol is compatible with the human body, making it suitable for medical devices. Its corrosion resistance ensures longevity and functionality within biological environments.
  • Corrosion Resistance: Similar to titanium, Nitinol exhibits excellent corrosion resistance, further broadening its range of applications, especially in harsh environments.

Applications of Nitinol Pipes

The unique properties of Nitinol pipes have led to their use in diverse applications, particularly in the medical field and smart materials applications:

  • Medical Devices: Nitinol is widely used in stents, including peripheral, vascular, and coronary stents, where its shape memory effect is utilized to expand the stent at body temperature. It is also used in catheters, guidewires, and orthopedic implants.
  • Actuators and Sensors: In aerospace and automotive industries, Nitinol pipes serve as components in actuators and sensors, utilizing their shape memory and superelastic properties for precision control and responsiveness.
  • Couplings and Connectors: The ability of Nitinol to undergo phase transformation is used in couplings and connectors, providing a secure and reliable fit that is responsive to temperature changes.

Fabrication and Processing

Working with Nitinol, particularly in the form of pipes, requires specialized processing techniques due to its unique mechanical properties and behavior during phase transformation. Techniques such as laser cutting, electropolishing, and shape-setting processes are employed to achieve the desired shapes and surface finishes while preserving the material’s properties.

Considerations for Use

When considering Nitinol for applications, it is essential to account for its transformation temperature range, which must align with the operational environment to utilize its shape memory or superelastic properties effectively. Additionally, the cost of Nitinol, influenced by the complexity of its processing and the precision required in its application, may be higher than other materials, making it crucial to assess its cost-effectiveness for the intended use.


WASPALOY is a high-strength, nickel-based, age-hardenable superalloy with excellent high-temperature strength and good resistance to oxidation at temperatures up to about 1600┬░F (870┬░C). Composed primarily of nickel, chromium, and cobalt, with smaller amounts of molybdenum, titanium, and aluminum, WASPALOY offers a balance of high-temperature strength and corrosion resistance, making it suitable for demanding aerospace and industrial applications.

Key Properties of WASPALOY Pipes

  • High-Temperature Strength: WASPALOY maintains its strength and hardness at elevated temperatures, making it suitable for high-temperature service applications where lesser alloys might soften or degrade.
  • Resistance to Oxidation and Corrosion: The alloy exhibits good resistance to oxidation and corrosion, particularly in harsh environments encountered in jet engines and gas turbine operations.
  • Age Hardenable: WASPALOY can be strengthened through heat treatment, allowing it to achieve higher strength levels through precipitation hardening, which is critical for applications requiring durability and reliability under stress.
  • Creep Resistance: It has excellent resistance to creep, the tendency of a solid material to slowly move or deform under the influence of mechanical stresses, at high temperatures.

Applications of WASPALOY Pipes

Given its exceptional properties, WASPALOY is primarily used in aerospace and power generation applications where high-temperature strength and corrosion resistance are critical:

  • Aerospace Industry: Used in turbine disks, shafts, and blades in jet engines, as well as for other engine components that require high strength at elevated temperatures.
  • Gas Turbines: Suitable for gas turbine components, including combustors and afterburner parts, where the material’s resistance to high-temperature corrosion and oxidation is essential.
  • Industrial Furnace Parts: Components within industrial furnaces that require high strength and resistance to thermal cycling benefit from WASPALOY’s properties.
  • Fasteners and Springs: High-strength fasteners and springs that must perform reliably at high temperatures can be made from WASPALOY.

Fabrication and Machining

WASPALOY can be challenging to machine and form due to its high strength and work-hardening characteristics. Advanced machining techniques and the use of proper tooling materials are necessary to effectively work with this alloy. Additionally, the alloy’s age-hardening process requires precise control of heat treatment to achieve the desired mechanical properties.

Considerations for Use

When selecting WASPALOY for specific applications, it is crucial to consider its high-temperature capabilities in conjunction with its mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The alloy’s cost, driven by its complex composition and processing requirements, should also be evaluated in the context of the application’s performance requirements and budget constraints.

WASPALOY pipes represent an advanced material solution for applications exposed to extreme temperatures and corrosive environments, particularly in the aerospace and power generation sectors. Their exceptional high-temperature strength, coupled with good resistance to oxidation and corrosion, makes them invaluable in designing components that demand reliability, longevity, and performance in challenging conditions. The selection and use of WASPALOY must be carefully considered, taking into account its unique properties, fabrication challenges, and cost to ensure optimal application outcomes.


HASTELLOY® B-2, designated as UNS N10665, is a nickel-molybdenum alloy that provides excellent resistance to a wide variety of chemical process environments, including strong acids and is particularly suited for handling reducing substances. It is an upgrade from HASTELLOY® B (UNS N10001) with enhanced resistance to hydrogen chloride gas and sulfuric, acetic, and phosphoric acids. Thanks to its significant molybdenum content, HASTELLOY® B-2 exhibits excellent resistance to pitting and stress-corrosion cracking, making it a preferred choice for harsh chemical processing conditions.

Key Properties of HASTELLOY® B-2 Pipes

  • Exceptional Chemical Resistance: HASTELLOY┬« B-2 pipes are known for their outstanding corrosion resistance to strong reducing acids, such as hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, and other corrosive chemicals.
  • Resistance to Stress-Corrosion Cracking: The alloy’s composition minimizes carbide precipitation during welding, maintaining corrosion resistance in the heat-affected zones of welded joints.
  • Fabricability: Despite its high strength and corrosion resistance, HASTELLOY┬« B-2 can be fabricated using standard industrial processes, including welding, machining, and forming, making it versatile for manufacturing complex components.

Applications of HASTELLOY® B-2 Pipes

Given their superior corrosion resistance, HASTELLOY® B-2 pipes find extensive use in harsh chemical processing environments:

  • Chemical Processing: Ideal for reactors, heat exchangers, and columns in the production of chemicals where reducing conditions are present.
  • Pharmaceutical Industry: Used in reactors and equipment for synthesizing and processing acidic pharmaceutical products.
  • Pulp and Paper Production: Applicable in bleaching processes and other stages involving corrosive chemicals.
  • Waste Treatment: Suitable for handling waste streams that contain aggressive chemical agents.

Fabrication and Welding

HASTELLOY® B-2 pipes can be fabricated using standard commercial methods. However, due to its corrosion resistance properties, care must be taken during welding to avoid hot cracking. The use of matching filler metals is recommended to ensure that the weld area also possesses the same corrosion resistance as the base metal. Pre-heating and post-weld heat treatments are not necessary, but the material should be cleaned to remove contaminants before welding to ensure the best results.

Considerations for Use

  • Temperature Limitations: HASTELLOY┬« B-2 performs excellently in reducing environments but is not recommended for use in oxidizing media or in the presence of ferric or cupric salts as these may rapidly corrode the alloy.
  • Cost and Availability: While offering exceptional performance in specific environments, the specialized nature of HASTELLOY┬« B-2 may influence its cost and availability. Its use should be considered where its unique properties are essential for the applicationÔÇÖs success.

HASTELLOY® B-2 pipes represent an advanced solution for challenging chemical process environments, offering unparalleled resistance to reducing acids and other corrosive chemicals. Their ability to withstand harsh conditions without compromising integrity or performance makes them invaluable in sectors where chemical resistance is paramount. With proper handling and fabrication, HASTELLOY® B-2 can be employed to create reliable, long-lasting systems and components in the most demanding applications.


HASTELLOY® X, designated as UNS N06002, is a nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum alloy known for its exceptional combination of oxidation resistance, fabricability, and high-temperature strength. This alloy has been developed to excel in environments up to 2200°F (1204°C), making it ideal for applications that demand stability under severe conditions, including those in the aerospace and industrial sectors.

Key Properties of HASTELLOY® X Pipes

  • Oxidation Resistance: HASTELLOY┬« X exhibits superior oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures, making it capable of withstanding prolonged exposure to high-temperature environments without significant degradation.
  • High-Temperature Strength: The alloy maintains its strength and structural integrity at high temperatures, resisting deformation and failure under stress.
  • Corrosion Resistance: While primarily known for its high-temperature capabilities, HASTELLOY┬« X also offers good resistance to stress-corrosion cracking and a variety of corrosive media.
  • Fabricability: Despite its durability and high-temperature resilience, HASTELLOY┬« X can be fabricated with relative ease. It can be welded, formed, and machined using standard methods, which is an advantage when manufacturing complex components.

Applications of HASTELLOY® X Pipes

Due to its outstanding properties, HASTELLOY® X pipes are used in a variety of demanding applications:

  • Aerospace Industry: Utilized in gas turbine engines for components such as combustion zones, afterburners, turbine blades, and vanes, where high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance are critical.
  • Industrial Furnaces: Suitable for furnace components, including retorts, muffles, and conveyor belts, that require resistance to high temperatures and oxidizing atmospheres.
  • Petrochemical Processing: Applied in pyrolysis tubes, furnace baffles, and burner nozzles, where stability under heat and resistance to corrosive environments are necessary.
  • Power Generation: Used in superheater tubing and other components within power plants that operate at high temperatures and require materials with long service life under challenging conditions.

Considerations for Use

When selecting HASTELLOY® X for specific applications, several factors should be considered:

  • Operating Environment: While HASTELLOY┬« X is designed for high temperatures, the specific conditions of the application, including potential exposure to corrosive substances, must be evaluated to ensure compatibility.
  • Fabrication Techniques: Given the alloy’s high-temperature capabilities, special attention should be paid to fabrication techniques to preserve its mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, particularly in welded areas.
  • Cost-Effectiveness: The advanced properties of HASTELLOY┬« X come with a higher cost compared to some other materials. Therefore, its selection should be justified by the operational demands of the application.

HASTELLOY┬« X pipes offer a compelling solution for applications that operate under extreme temperatures and in corrosive environments, balancing high-temperature strength, oxidation resistance, and fabricability. Their use in aerospace, industrial furnaces, petrochemical processing, and power generation underscores the alloy’s adaptability and performance in some of the most challenging industrial applications. Selecting HASTELLOY┬« X involves careful consideration of the application requirements to fully leverage the alloy’s capabilities while ensuring economic viability.


Titanium pipes are made from titanium, a lustrous transition metal known for its high strength-to-weight ratio, superior corrosion resistance, and excellent mechanical properties. Due to titanium’s unique characteristics, pipes made from this material find applications across a wide range of industries, including aerospace, chemical processing, power generation, and marine applications.

Key Properties of Titanium Pipes

  • High Strength-to-Weight Ratio: Titanium offers the strength of steel at roughly half the weight, making titanium pipes ideal for applications where both strength and weight are critical factors.
  • Exceptional Corrosion Resistance: Titanium is exceptionally resistant to corrosion by both seawater and chlorine, as well as a wide range of acids, alkalis, and other chemicals. This resistance is attributed to the formation of a stable, protective oxide layer that forms naturally on the surface of titanium when exposed to oxygen.
  • Biocompatibility: Titanium is non-toxic and not rejected by the body, making it an excellent material for medical implants, such as joint replacements and dental implants.
  • High-Temperature Performance: Titanium pipes maintain their strength and resist creep in high-temperature environments, making them suitable for high-temperature applications in power generation and aerospace.
  • Low Thermal Expansion: Titanium’s thermal expansion rate is lower than that of many other metals, providing dimensional stability under varying temperatures.

Applications of Titanium Pipes

Given their superior properties, titanium pipes are used in a variety of demanding applications:

  • Chemical Processing: Utilized in piping systems that transport corrosive chemicals, where the material’s corrosion resistance ensures long service life and reliability.
  • Aerospace: Used in aircraft hydraulic systems and as structural components, where strength, lightweight, and high-temperature resistance are vital.
  • Marine Applications: Employed in desalination plants, shipbuilding, and offshore oil and gas platforms due to titanium’s resistance to seawater corrosion.
  • Power Generation: Applied in cooling systems and condensers in power plants, especially where seawater is used for cooling, due to its corrosion resistance and ability to withstand high flow rates.
  • Medical Devices: Titanium pipes can be used in the manufacture of prosthetics and orthopedic implants, benefiting from the metal’s biocompatibility and strength.

Fabrication and Machining

While titanium’s properties offer numerous advantages, working with titaniumÔÇöwhether through welding, machining, or formingÔÇörequires specialized techniques. Titanium’s reactivity at high temperatures necessitates the use of inert gas shielding methods during welding to prevent contamination. Similarly, machining titanium requires attention to cutting speeds, tooling materials, and cooling to avoid work hardening and to ensure the longevity of cutting tools.

Considerations for Use

When selecting titanium pipes for specific applications, factors such as cost, environment, and mechanical requirements must be considered. Titanium’s cost is higher than that of many other metals, attributed to its processing and machining requirements. However, its durability, resistance to corrosion, and exceptional performance in challenging environments often justify the initial investment.

Titanium pipes represent a superior choice for applications requiring strength, lightweight, and outstanding corrosion resistance. Their use across industries such as aerospace, chemical processing, marine, power generation, and medical devices highlights the material’s versatility and ability to perform in some of the most demanding conditions. With proper handling and fabrication, titanium pipes can provide long-lasting, reliable solutions that leverage the unique advantages of titanium to meet critical industrial and medical needs.


Zirconium pipes are manufactured from zirconium, a transition metal known for its remarkable resistance to corrosion, high melting point, and excellent heat resistance. Due to these properties, zirconium and its alloys are highly valued in environments where corrosive agents would degrade most other materials. This makes zirconium pipes an ideal choice for applications in the chemical processing industry and nuclear reactors, among others.

Key Properties of Zirconium Pipes

  • Outstanding Corrosion Resistance: Zirconium pipes exhibit exceptional resistance to a wide range of corrosive environments, particularly to acids such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, even at high concentrations and temperatures. This resistance is largely attributed to the formation of a stable, protective oxide layer on the surface.
  • High Melting Point: Zirconium has a high melting point (around 1855┬░C or 3371┬░F), contributing to its excellent high-temperature stability and making it suitable for use in extreme conditions.
  • Low Thermal Neutron Absorption: This property is particularly relevant in nuclear applications, as zirconium’s low neutron absorption cross-section makes it an ideal material for cladding fuel rods in nuclear reactors.
  • Good Heat Resistance: Besides its high melting point, zirconium efficiently resists heat-induced degradation, maintaining its integrity in high-temperature applications.

Applications of Zirconium Pipes

The unique properties of zirconium make its pipes highly sought after in various specialized fields:

  • Chemical Processing Industry: Zirconium pipes are used in the production and handling of acetic and hydrochloric acids, alkalis, and other corrosive chemicals, where their corrosion resistance ensures longevity and reduces maintenance costs.
  • Nuclear Reactors: Due to its low neutron absorption rate, zirconium is used in nuclear reactors as cladding for fuel rods, where it facilitates the efficient use of nuclear fuel while preventing corrosion.
  • Desalination Plants: Zirconium’s resistance to seawater corrosion makes it suitable for heat exchangers and other components within desalination plants, contributing to efficient and reliable operation.
  • Aerospace: The high-temperature stability and resistance to corrosive fluids make zirconium pipes a good choice for certain aerospace applications, including systems handling aggressive chemicals.

Fabrication and Machining

Zirconium is malleable and can be easily formed and welded, allowing for the fabrication of complex components. However, special care must be taken when machining and welding zirconium due to its reactivity at high temperatures, which can lead to embrittlement if exposed to certain elements. Inert atmosphere processing and careful handling are essential to maintain the integrity of zirconium components.

Considerations for Use

While zirconium pipes offer significant advantages in terms of corrosion resistance and performance in extreme environments, their use is primarily limited to applications where their unique properties are necessary due to the higher cost of zirconium compared to more common materials. Proper design and material selection are crucial to leveraging the benefits of zirconium pipes effectively.

Zirconium pipes represent an advanced solution for challenging applications that require exceptional corrosion resistance, high-temperature performance, and durability. Their use in the chemical processing and nuclear industries, among others, highlights the material’s unique advantages in demanding environments. With appropriate fabrication and handling, zirconium pipes can provide long-term, reliable service, maximizing the benefits of this remarkable material.


Non-ferrous pipes are made from materials that do not contain significant amounts of iron. These materials offer various advantages over ferrous (iron-containing) materials, including resistance to corrosion, non-magnetic properties, and, in some cases, superior strength-to-weight ratios. Here are some common grades of non-ferrous pipes and their key characteristics:

Copper and Copper Alloys

  • Copper (C11000): Pure copper, known for its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, formability, and corrosion resistance. Used in plumbing, HVAC, and electrical applications.
  • Brass (C26000, C27000): An alloy of copper and zinc, brass offers good strength, corrosion resistance, and machinability. Commonly used in decorative applications, water lines, and musical instruments.
  • Bronze (C90500, C95500): Copper alloyed with tin (and sometimes other elements like aluminum), bronze is noted for its strength, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance. Used in marine applications and for bearings and bushings.
  • Cupronickel (C70600 90/10, C71500 70/30): see above for an in-depth discussion

Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

  • Aluminum (6061, 6063): Known for its lightweight, corrosion resistance, and good strength-to-weight ratio. Widely used in structural applications, automotive parts, and aerospace components.
  • Aluminum Bronze (C95400): An aluminum alloy with added copper, offering high strength, excellent corrosion and wear resistance. Used in high-load bearings, bushings, and marine hardware.



ASME B36.19M is a standard that covers the dimensions and weights of stainless steel pipes, including a wide range of nickel alloy pipes used in various industries. This standard ensures that pipes meet specific requirements for diameter, wall thickness, and weight, facilitating compatibility and interchangeability in piping systems.

The standard specifies dimensions for welded and seamless wrought stainless steel pipe.

While the term “stainless steel” is specified, ASME B36.19M is widely referenced for nickel alloys as well, due to the similar sizing and because many nickel alloys are used in conjunction with or as an alternative to stainless steels in corrosive environments. The pipes are categorized by their nominal pipe size (NPS) and schedule number (SCH), which indicate the pipe’s outer diameter and wall thickness, respectively.


The typical production range for this high-end type of pipe is the following:

  • Nominal Pipe Size (NPS): Ranges from 1/8 inch to 12 inches. For NPS larger than 12 inches, the actual dimensions correspond to the pipe’s outer diameter in inches.
  • Schedule Number (SCH): Indicates the wall thickness. Common schedules for stainless steel and nickel alloy pipes include SCH 5S, 10S, 40S, and 80S. The ‘S’ denotes stainless steel materials, but it applies to nickel alloys as well. Higher schedule numbers represent thicker walls, providing a higher pressure rating




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About the Author

Picture of Fabrizio S.

Fabrizio S.

Fabrizio is a seasoned professional in the international trading of materials for projects, including piping, steel, and metal commodities with a distinguished career spanning over two decades. He has become a pivotal figure in the industry, renowned for his expertise in bridging the gap between EPC contractors, end users, manufacturers, and stockists to facilitate the seamless delivery of complex piping product packages across the globe. Starting his journey with a strong academic background in business administration and international trade, Fabrizio quickly distinguished himself in the field through his adept negotiation skills, strategic vision, and unparalleled knowledge of the project materials market. His career trajectory has seen him collaborate with leading names in the construction, oil & gas, and petrochemical industries, earning a reputation for excellence in executing large-scale projects (EPC Contractors, Oil & Gas End Users). At the core of Fabrizio's success is his ability to understand the intricate needs of EPC contractors and end users, aligning these with the capabilities of manufacturers and stockists. He excels in orchestrating the entire supply chain process, from product specification and procurement to logistics and on-time delivery, ensuring that each project phase is executed flawlessly. Fabrizio's role involves intense coordination and communication, leveraging his extensive network within the industry to negotiate competitive prices, manage complex logistical challenges, and navigate the regulatory landscape of international trade. His strategic approach to package assembly and delivery has resulted in cost efficiencies, timely project execution, and high satisfaction levels among stakeholders. Beyond his professional achievements, Fabrizio is an active participant in industry forums and conferences, such as Adipec, Tube, and similar, where he shares insights on market trends, supply chain optimization, and the future of project materials trading. His contributions to the field are not only limited to his operational excellence but also include mentoring young professionals entering the trade. Fabrizio is one of the co-founders of Projectmaterials, a B2B marketplace targeting the above markets.

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