Copper pipes background, 3D rendering

Copper Tubes for Plumbing and Oil & Gas Applications (ASTM B88, EN1057)

Copper pipes background, 3D rendering

Copper Tubes for Plumbing and Oil & Gas Applications (ASTM B88, EN1057)

Copper tubes are widely used in plumbing due to their durability, corrosion resistance, and antimicrobial properties. They offer a reliable solution for both hot and cold water supply lines, as well as for HVAC systems. Copper’s thermal conductivity ensures efficient heat transfer, making it ideal for radiators and heating systems. Copper tubes in the oil and gas industry are primarily used for applications requiring corrosion resistance, durability, and thermal conductivity (they are used for certain types of equipment like heat exchangers, coolers, and sometimes in small-diameter piping for specialty gases or liquids where corrosion resistance is a critical factor). Available in various sizes and grades, copper tubes meet rigorous standards, ensuring safety and quality in residential and industrial applications.

COPPER TUBES

WHAT ARE COPPER TUBES?

Copper tubes are a type of piping used extensively for plumbing, HVAC, and certain industrial applications. Known for their durability, excellent thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance, copper tubes are ideal for both hot and cold water supply lines, heating systems, and even for specific uses within the oil and gas industry.

copper pipes ASTM B88 long
copper pipes ASTM B88 long

Their antimicrobial properties also contribute to their widespread use in delivering clean water. Copper tubes come in various sizes and grades to meet different requirements and standards, ensuring safety and quality in their applications.

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS IN PLUMBING

Copper tubes and pipes are widely used in plumbing systems due to their excellent properties and numerous advantages. Here are some key applications of copper tubes/pipes in plumbing:

Potable Water Supply:

  • Copper pipes are extensively used for conveying potable water in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings.
  • Their corrosion resistance ensures the purity of drinking water, as copper does not react with water or contribute harmful substances.
  • Copper’s antimicrobial properties also help inhibit the growth of bacteria, making it ideal for drinking water systems.

Hot and Cold Water Distribution:

  • Copper’s ability to withstand high temperatures makes it suitable for both hot and cold water distribution systems.
  • It maintains its strength and integrity even at elevated temperatures, ensuring reliable performance in various climates and operating conditions.

Plumbing Fixtures and Fittings:

  • Copper tubes are commonly used to connect plumbing fixtures such as sinks, faucets, showers, and toilets.
  • They provide secure and leak-resistant connections, helping to maintain the integrity of the plumbing system over time.

Underground Water Lines:

  • Copper pipes are often buried underground for water supply lines in residential, commercial, and municipal applications.
  • Their durability and resistance to corrosion make them suitable for long-term underground installations, providing reliable water supply to buildings and communities.

Recirculating Hot Water Systems:

  • In recirculating hot water systems, copper tubes are used to circulate hot water from the water heater to various fixtures quickly.
  • Copper’s thermal conductivity allows for efficient heat transfer, reducing wait times for hot water and conserving energy.

Fire Sprinkler Systems:

  • Copper pipes are also used in fire sprinkler systems for their reliability and resistance to heat and corrosion.
  • They ensure rapid and effective water distribution in the event of a fire, helping to suppress flames and protect property and lives.

Solar Water Heating Systems:

  • Copper tubes are preferred for solar water heating systems due to their excellent thermal conductivity and resistance to corrosion.
  • They facilitate the transfer of solar heat to water, maximizing the efficiency of the system and reducing energy costs.

APPLICATIONS IN THE OIL & GAS INDUSTRY

Copper tubes and pipes find limited applications in the oil and gas industry compared to other materials like carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, and nickel alloys.

However, there are specific niche applications where copper tubes/pipes are utilized due to their unique properties. Here are some key applications of copper tubes/pipes in the oil & gas industry:

Heat Exchangers:

  • Copper tubes are used in heat exchangers for cooling or heating fluids in various processes within refineries and petrochemical plants.
  • Their excellent thermal conductivity allows for efficient heat transfer, making them suitable for applications such as condensers and evaporators.

Instrumentation and Control Lines:

  • Copper tubes are sometimes used for small-diameter instrumentation and control lines in oil and gas processing facilities.
  • Their corrosion resistance and malleability make them suitable for conveying sensitive fluids or gases in instrumentation systems.

Hydraulic Systems:

  • In certain hydraulic systems where corrosion resistance and thermal conductivity are crucial, copper tubes may be employed.
  • They can be found in hydraulic control systems for valves, actuators, and other equipment in oil and gas production and processing operations.

Chemical Injection Lines:

  • Copper tubes are occasionally used for chemical injection lines in offshore platforms and production facilities.
  • Their resistance to corrosion and compatibility with various chemicals make them suitable for delivering corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and other chemicals into oil and gas wells or pipelines.

Subsea Equipment:

  • In some subsea applications, copper tubes may be utilized for specific components or equipment.
  • Copper’s resistance to corrosion in seawater and its ability to withstand high pressures and temperatures make it suitable for certain subsea instrumentation or control systems.

Small-Diameter Tubing:

  • Copper tubes can be employed for small-diameter piping in auxiliary systems or instrumentation where the low weight and ease of installation are advantageous.
  • They may be used for low-pressure gas lines or sample lines in laboratory testing and analysis within oil and gas facilities.

While copper tubes and pipes are not as prevalent in the oil and gas industry as steel or other materials, they still find niche applications where their unique properties offer advantages in specific processes or environments. It’s essential to carefully assess the requirements of each application to determine the suitability of copper tubes/pipes relative to other materials.

THE EXCEPTIONAL PROPERTIES OF COPPER

Copper is a versatile and highly valuable metal with a wide range of properties that make it ideal for various applications, including the manufacturing of copper tubes.

Electrolytic copper cathodes 99.99%
Electrolytic copper cathodes 99.99%

Here are some key properties of copper relevant to copper tubes:

Excellent Conductivity:

  • Copper is one of the most conductive metals, both electrically and thermally.
  • This property makes copper tubes highly efficient for transporting fluids or gases and for conducting heat in heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC), and refrigeration systems.

Corrosion Resistance:

  • Copper exhibits excellent corrosion resistance, particularly in natural environments.
  • This resistance to corrosion makes copper tubes suitable for use in plumbing systems, where they are exposed to water and other corrosive substances, ensuring long-term reliability and durability.

Malleability and Ductility:

  • Copper is highly malleable and ductile, meaning it can be easily shaped, formed, and bent without cracking or breaking.
  • This property allows for the fabrication of copper tubes into various shapes and configurations, facilitating easy installation and adaptability to complex plumbing or HVAC layouts.

High Strength:

  • Despite its malleability, copper possesses high tensile strength, allowing copper tubes to withstand internal pressure and external forces without deforming or rupturing.
  • This combination of strength and ductility ensures the integrity and structural stability of copper tubes under normal operating conditions.

Antimicrobial Properties:

  • Copper exhibits natural antimicrobial properties, which inhibit the growth and proliferation of bacteria, viruses, and fungi on its surface.
  • This property makes copper tubes suitable for applications where hygiene and sanitation are critical, such as in potable water systems and medical gas pipelines.

Durability:

  • Copper is a durable metal with excellent resistance to wear, abrasion, and fatigue.
  • Copper tubes can withstand harsh operating conditions, including high temperatures, pressure fluctuations, and mechanical stresses, without degrading or deteriorating over time.

Compatibility:

  • Copper is compatible with a wide range of materials commonly used in plumbing and HVAC systems, including solder, fluxes, sealants, and insulation materials.
  • This compatibility ensures reliable connections, joints, and seals, minimizing the risk of leaks or failures in copper tube installations.

Recyclability:

  • Copper is highly recyclable, with virtually all scrap copper being recoverable and reusable.
  • This property contributes to the sustainability and environmental friendliness of copper tubes, reducing the need for virgin materials and minimizing waste in manufacturing processes.

Overall, the combination of conductivity, corrosion resistance, malleability, strength, antimicrobial properties, durability, compatibility, and recyclability makes copper an ideal material for manufacturing high-quality and reliable copper tubes used in plumbing, HVAC, refrigeration, and various industrial applications.

 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR COPPER TUBES

ASTM SPECIFICATION FOR COPPER TUBES

Copper tubes are widely used in various industries, including plumbing, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), and industrial applications. Different regions have their own specifications for copper tubes. The American specifications (ASTM) for copper tubes are:

ASTM B88/B88M – Seamless Copper Water Tube:

  • ASTM B88/B88M: the B88 specification defines the requirements for seamless copper water tubes used in general plumbing, heating, and cooling applications.
  • This standard categorizes copper tubes based on their nominal sizes, wall thicknesses, and temper conditions.
  • Types K, L, and M are the most common classifications, with Type K having the thickest walls and Type M the thinnest.
  • Common copper alloys specified in ASTM B88/B88M include C12200 (Phosphorus-Deoxidized Copper), C10200 (Oxygen-Free Copper), and C11000 (Electrolytic Tough Pitch Copper).

ASTM B280 – Seamless Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration:

  • ASTM B280 specifies seamless copper tubes for air conditioning and refrigeration field service.
  • This standard covers tubes in straight lengths for the distribution of refrigerants and other gases in HVAC systems.
  • Common copper alloys specified in ASTM B280 include C12200 (Phosphorus-Deoxidized Copper) and C12000 (DLP Copper).

ASTM B306 – Copper Drainage Tube (DWV):

  • ASTM B306 covers seamless copper drainage tubes (DWV) for use in gravity drainage systems.
  • These tubes are typically used in drainage, waste, and vent (DWV) systems in residential and commercial buildings.
  • Copper tubes used for DWV applications typically include various grades of copper, such as C12200 (Phosphorus-Deoxidized Copper) and C10100 (Oxygen-Free Electronic Copper).

ASTM B837 – Seamless Copper Tube for Natural Gas and Liquified Petroleum (LP) Gas Fuel Distribution Systems:

  • ASTM B837 specifies seamless copper tubes suitable for use in natural gas and LP gas fuel distribution systems.
  • These tubes are designed to withstand the pressures and conditions associated with the distribution of natural gas and LP gas.
  • Common copper alloys specified in ASTM B837 include C12200 (Phosphorus-Deoxidized Copper) and C10100 (Oxygen-Free Electronic Copper).

ASTM B819 – Seamless Copper Tube for Medical Gas Systems:

  • ASTM B819 provides requirements for seamless copper tubes intended for use in medical gas systems.
  • These tubes are used for the distribution of medical gases, such as oxygen and nitrogen, in healthcare facilities.
  • Common copper alloys specified in ASTM B819 include C12200 (Phosphorus-Deoxidized Copper) and C10100 (Oxygen-Free Electronic Copper).

ASTM B743 – Seamless Copper Tube in Coils:

  • ASTM B743 covers seamless copper tubes in coils for general engineering purposes.
  • These coils are typically used in various industrial applications where continuous lengths of copper tubing are required.

These standard categorizes copper tubes into three types – K, L, and M – each serving different pressure and application demands, from residential to commercial and industrial settings.

TYPES OF COPPER TUBES BY ASTM B88: K, L, M, DMW

Copper tubes, essential for plumbing, heating, and cooling systems, are distinguished into three types based on their wall thickness and application suitability: Type K, L, and M.

Type K copper tubes

Featuring the thickest walls among the three, type K copper tubes are designed to withstand high pressures and are typically used in underground installations such as main water lines to houses and for other applications where durability is critical. Their robust construction makes them an excellent choice for industrial and commercial settings where the tube may be exposed to aggressive environments or must transport fluids at higher pressures.

Type L copper tubes

Type L copper tubes offer a balance between thickness and flexibility, making them suitable for a wide range of applications, including residential and commercial plumbing and heating systems. Their medium wall thickness ensures good resistance to pressure and environmental conditions, making them a popular choice for both indoor and outdoor plumbing applications, including potable water distribution and fire sprinkler systems.

Type M copper tubes

The last type, copper tube M, with the thinnest walls of the three, is primarily used in indoor water service applications, such as for domestic water distribution within homes. They are favored for situations where the water pressure is relatively low and the demand for cost-effectiveness is high. Despite their thinner walls, Type M tubes still provide a reliable and durable solution for transporting water, though they are not recommended for external use or in situations where they might be subjected to mechanical stress or high pressure.

DMW copper tubes

DWV copper tubes refer to copper tubes specifically designed and manufactured for use in drainage, waste, and vent (DWV) systems. These systems are an essential part of plumbing installations, allowing for the safe and effective removal of wastewater and sewage from buildings while providing ventilation to prevent the buildup of harmful gases.

Here are some key features and characteristics of DWV copper tubes:

  1. Seamless Construction: DWV copper tubes are typically manufactured using a seamless construction method, ensuring uniformity and reliability in their structure.
  2. Standardized Dimensions: They adhere to specific dimensional standards, such as those outlined in ASTM B306 in the United States and EN 1057 in Europe, which define the sizes, tolerances, and wall thicknesses of copper tubes for DWV applications.
  3. Corrosion Resistance: Like other types of copper tubes, DWV copper tubes offer excellent corrosion resistance, ensuring long-term durability and reliability in drainage systems where exposure to moisture and chemicals is common.
  4. Smooth Interior: DWV copper tubes have a smooth interior surface, which promotes efficient flow and prevents clogs or blockages from occurring within the drainage system.
  5. Compatibility: They are compatible with various joining methods, including soldering, brazing, or mechanical fittings, allowing for secure and leak-resistant connections between tubes and other system components.
  6. Code Compliance: DWV copper tubes must meet relevant building codes and standards governing plumbing installations, ensuring compliance with safety and performance requirements.

DWV copper tubes are commonly used in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings for drainage systems, including soil stacks, waste stacks, branch drains, and vent pipes. They play a crucial role in maintaining sanitary conditions and preventing plumbing issues by efficiently removing wastewater and providing ventilation to the plumbing system.

Each type of copper tube is selected based on the specific needs of the project, considering factors such as the expected water pressure, the environment in which the tubes will be installed, and the level of durability required. Understanding the differences between Types K, L, and M copper tubes helps ensure the right selection for a given application, contributing to the longevity and efficiency of plumbing and heating systems.

Common ASTM Material Grades for Copper Tubes

C12200 (Phosphorus-Deoxidized Copper or DHP):

  • C12200 is a high-purity copper alloy with small amounts of phosphorus added as a deoxidizing agent.
  • It offers excellent corrosion resistance and thermal conductivity.
  • Commonly used in plumbing systems, HVAC components, heat exchangers, and electrical applications.

C10200 (Oxygen-Free Copper or OF):

  • C10200 is a high-purity copper alloy with low oxygen content, making it highly conductive.
  • It exhibits exceptional electrical conductivity and is often used in electrical and electronic applications such as wiring, busbars, and electrical contacts.
  • Also utilized in vacuum tubes, microwave tubes, and semiconductor manufacturing.

C11000 (Electrolytic Tough Pitch Copper or ETP):

  • C11000 is a commercially pure copper alloy with high conductivity and good mechanical properties.
  • It is widely used in electrical applications, including wiring, busbars, transformers, and electrical conductors.
  • Also used in plumbing systems, heat exchangers, and architectural applications due to its corrosion resistance and ease of fabrication.

C12000 (DLP Copper):

  • C12000 is a commercially pure copper alloy with high electrical conductivity.
  • It is commonly used in electrical and electronic applications, including electrical connectors, terminals, and printed circuit boards (PCBs).
  • Also utilized in plumbing systems, HVAC components, and heat exchangers due to its corrosion resistance and thermal conductivity.

C10100 (Oxygen-Free Electronic Copper or OFE):

  • C10100 is a high-purity copper alloy with extremely low oxygen content, making it suitable for high-performance electronic applications.
  • It offers excellent electrical conductivity, low thermal EMF (electromagnetic force), and low outgassing properties, making it ideal for use in vacuum applications and sensitive electronic devices.
  • Commonly used in aerospace, telecommunications, medical equipment, and scientific instruments.

EUROPEAN SPECIFICATION FOR COPPER TUBES (EN 1057)

In Europe, copper tubes and pipes are governed by several specifications established by European standardization organizations.

The most notable specification for copper tubes and pipes in Europe is EN 1057, which defines the requirements for copper and copper alloy seamless round tubes for water and gas in sanitary and heating applications.

Additionally, there are other relevant European specifications for specific applications and industries. Here are some key European specifications for copper tubes/pipes:

EN 1057 – Copper and Copper Alloys – Seamless, Round Tubes for Water and Gas in Sanitary and Heating Applications:

  • EN 1057 specifies the requirements for copper and copper alloy seamless round tubes used in plumbing, heating, and gas distribution systems.
  • It categorizes copper tubes into different types (R220, R250, R290, R360) based on their composition and suitability for specific applications.

EN 12449 – Copper and Copper Alloys – Seamless, Round Tubes for General Purposes:

  • EN 12449 outlines the requirements for seamless, round copper tubes used in various general applications.
  • This standard covers a wide range of copper tube sizes and types for diverse industrial, commercial, and residential uses.

EN 13348 – Copper and Copper Alloys – Seamless, Round Copper Tubes for Medical Gases or Vacuum:

  • EN 13348 specifies seamless, round copper tubes used for medical gas pipeline systems or vacuum systems.
  • These tubes are designed to meet the specific requirements of medical facilities, ensuring the safe and reliable distribution of medical gases.

EN 13600 – Copper and Copper Alloys – Seamless, Round Copper Tubes for Industrial Purposes:

  • EN 13600 provides specifications for seamless, round copper tubes intended for various industrial purposes.
  • It covers copper tubes used in industrial processes, equipment manufacturing, and other specialized applications.

EN 12450 – Copper and Copper Alloys – Seamless, Round Copper Tubes for Water and Gas in Sanitary and Heating Applications:

  • EN 12450 specifies requirements for seamless, round copper tubes specifically intended for water and gas applications in sanitary and heating systems.
  • This standard complements EN 1057 by providing additional specifications for certain types of copper tubes used in these applications.

These European specifications ensure that copper tubes and pipes meet stringent quality standards, dimensional tolerances, mechanical properties, and performance requirements for their intended uses across various industries and applications. Manufacturers and suppliers adhere to these standards to provide products that deliver reliability, safety, and efficiency in plumbing, heating, gas distribution, medical, and industrial systems.

TYPES OF COPPER TUBES BY EN1057: R220, R250, R290, R360

EN 1057 is a European standard that specifies the requirements for copper and copper alloy seamless round tubes for water and gas in sanitary and heating applications. According to EN 1057, there are several types of copper tubes distinguished by their composition and application suitability. Here are the main types:

R220
  • This type of copper tube is made from copper with a minimum copper content of 99.90%.
  • It is typically used for general purposes where the high corrosion resistance of copper is required, such as in plumbing installations for drinking water.
R250
  • Copper tubes classified as R250 are made from copper with a minimum copper content of 99.85%.
  • These tubes offer excellent corrosion resistance and are suitable for various applications including heating systems, hot and cold water distribution, and gas installations.
R290
  • R290 copper tubes are manufactured from copper with a minimum copper content of 99.70%.
  • They are often used in situations where the tube may be exposed to more aggressive environments or where higher mechanical strength is required, such as industrial applications and specific heating installations.
R360
  • Copper tubes designated as R360 are composed of copper with a minimum copper content of 99.50%.
  • These tubes are less common but may be utilized in specialized applications where the pipe is subjected to extreme conditions or where enhanced mechanical properties are necessary.

Each type of copper tube specified by EN 1057 offers varying levels of purity and strength, allowing for the selection of the most suitable material based on the specific requirements of the intended application. It’s crucial to choose the right type of copper tube to ensure longevity, efficiency, and safety in plumbing and heating systems.

DELIVERY OPTIONS FOR COPPER TUBES

COPPER TUBE SHAPES/FORMATS

Copper tubes can be delivered in various shapes and forms to accommodate different installation methods and requirements. The most common shapes of delivery for copper tubes include:

Straight Lengths:

Copper tubes straight lengths
Copper tubes straight lengths
  • Straight lengths are the most basic form of delivery for copper tubes.
  • These tubes are typically supplied in standard lengths, such as 10 feet (3 meters) or 20 feet (6 meters), although custom lengths may also be available.
  • Straight lengths are convenient for installations where the tubing needs to run in a linear path without significant bends or curves.

Coils:

Copper tubes coils
Copper tubes coils
  • Copper tubes can be delivered in coil form, where the tubing is wound into a circular coil.
  • Coils are commonly used for applications where flexibility and ease of installation are important, such as in residential plumbing and HVAC systems.
  • Coiled copper tubes can be easily maneuvered around obstacles and corners, reducing the need for fittings and joints.

Pancake Coils:

Pancake coils copper tubes
Pancake coils copper tubes
  • Pancake coils are a specific type of coil where the tubing is tightly wound into a flat, pancake-like shape.
  • These coils are often used in confined spaces or for applications where space is limited, such as in tight crawl spaces or behind walls.
  • Pancake coils are convenient for storage and transportation and can be easily unrolled and straightened during installation.

Pre-Insulated Copper Tubes:

Pre Insulated Copper Tubes
Pre Insulated Copper Tubes
  • Pre-insulated copper tubes are copper tubes that come encased in insulation material, such as foam or rubber.
  • These tubes are commonly used for chilled water or refrigeration applications where insulation is necessary to prevent condensation and maintain temperature efficiency.
  • Pre-insulated copper tubes simplify installation by combining the tubing and insulation into a single product.

Custom Shapes and Forms:

  • In addition to standard straight lengths and coils, copper tubes can be fabricated into custom shapes and forms to meet specific project requirements.
  • This may include bending, flaring, swaging, or other forming processes to create tubes with specialized angles, curves, or connections.
  • Custom-shaped copper tubes are often used in unique or complex installations where standard tubing configurations are not suitable.

These different shapes of delivery for copper tubes offer flexibility and versatility to meet the diverse needs of plumbing, heating, HVAC, and other applications. The choice of shape depends on factors such as installation requirements, space constraints, and project specifications.

COPPER TUBE SURFACE FINISH

Copper tubes can have various surface finishes applied to them to enhance their performance, protect against corrosion, and improve aesthetics. The types of surface finishes commonly used for copper tubes include:

Bright Annealed (BA):

Bright annealed copper tube
Bright annealed copper tube
  • Bright annealing is a heat treatment process that produces a shiny, reflective surface finish on copper tubes.
  • BA finish enhances the appearance of the tubes, making them aesthetically pleasing.
  • This finish also improves corrosion resistance and facilitates easier cleaning of the tube surface.

Mill Finish:

Mill Finish Copper Tubes
Mill Finish Copper Tubes
  • Mill finish refers to the surface condition of copper tubes as they come from the manufacturing process without any additional treatment.
  • It typically has a smooth, but not highly polished, surface appearance.
  • Mill finish copper tubes may be used as-is or further processed with additional surface treatments based on specific requirements.

Polished Finish:

Polished Finish Copper Tube
Polished Finish Copper Tube
  • Polished finishes involve mechanical or chemical processes to achieve a smooth and reflective surface on copper tubes.
  • Various grit sizes are used in polishing to achieve different levels of surface smoothness and shine.
  • Polished copper tubes are often used in applications where appearance is important, such as architectural and decorative applications.

Lacquered Finish:

Lacquered Finish Copper Tube
Lacquered Finish Copper Tube
  • A lacquered finish involves applying a protective lacquer coating to the surface of copper tubes to prevent tarnishing and corrosion.
  • The lacquer coating provides a durable barrier against environmental elements, moisture, and chemicals.
  • Lacquered copper tubes are commonly used in plumbing and HVAC applications where exposed to harsh conditions or where aesthetics are important.

Tinned Finish:

  • Tinning involves applying a thin layer of tin onto the surface of copper tubes to improve solderability and corrosion resistance.
  • Tinned copper tubes are often used in plumbing and refrigeration systems where soldered connections are required.
  • The tin coating also provides additional protection against oxidation and tarnishing.

Oxidized Finish:

  • Oxidized finish, also known as patina or verdigris, results from the natural oxidation of copper over time.
  • This finish gives copper tubes a characteristic greenish-brown color and a weathered appearance.
  • Oxidized copper tubes are commonly used in exterior applications, such as roofing and architectural elements, where a rustic or antique look is desired.

These surface finishes for copper tubes offer a range of options to meet specific performance, aesthetic, and functional requirements in various applications. The choice of finish depends on factors such as environmental conditions, intended use, and desired appearance.

SIZES OF COPPER TUBES

The table shows the standard dimensions of copper tubes for plumbing applications according to ASTM B88: 

SIZES IN INCHES NPS ¼ to 8

NPSOD
inch.
ID Inside DiameterWall Thickness
Copper Pipe Type
KLMDWVKLMDWV
1/40.3750.3050.3150.0350.030
3/80.5000.4020.4300.4500.0490.0350.025
1/20.6250.5270.5450.5690.0490.0400.028
5/80.7500.6520.6660.0490.042
3/40.8750.7450.7850.8110.0650.0450.032
11.1250.9951.0251.0550.0650.0500.035
1-1/41.3751.2451.2651.2911.2950.0650.0550.0420.040
1-1/21.6251.4811.5051.5271.5410.0720.0600.0490.042
22.1251.9591.9852.0092.0410.0830.0700.0580.042
2-1/22.6252.4352.4652.4950.0950.0800.065
33.1252.9072.9452.9813.0300.1090.0900.0720.045
3.53.6253.3853.4253.459.120.100.083
44.1253.8573.8973.9354.009.134.114.095.058
55.1254.8054.8754.9074.981.160.125.109.072
66.1255.7415.8455.8815.959.192.140.122.083
88.1257.5837.7257.785.271.200.170

SIZES IN INCHES/MILLIMETERS NPS ¼ to 3

Nominal Size

OD
Outside Diameter

ID
Inside Diameter
inch.mm.Type KType LType M
inch.mm.inch.mm.inch.mm.
​1⁄43⁄89.50.3057.7470.3158.001  
​3⁄81⁄212.70.40210.2110.43010.9220.45011.430
​1⁄25⁄815.8750.52813.4110.54513.8430.56914.453
​5⁄83⁄419.050.65216.5610.66816.9670.69017.526
​3⁄47⁄822.2250.74518.9230.78519.9390.81120.599
11 1⁄828.5750.99525.2731.02526.0351.05526.797
1​1⁄41 3⁄834.9251.24531.6231.26532.1311.29132.791
1​1⁄21 5⁄841.2751.48137.6171.50538.2271.52738.786
22 1⁄853.9751.95949.7591.98550.4192.00951.029
2​1⁄22 5⁄866.6752.43561.8492.46562.6112.49563.373
33 1⁄879.3752.90773.8382.94574.8032.98175.717
 

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About the Author

Picture of Fabrizio S.

Fabrizio S.

Fabrizio is a seasoned professional in the international trading of materials for projects, including piping, steel, and metal commodities with a distinguished career spanning over two decades. He has become a pivotal figure in the industry, renowned for his expertise in bridging the gap between EPC contractors, end users, manufacturers, and stockists to facilitate the seamless delivery of complex piping product packages across the globe. Starting his journey with a strong academic background in business administration and international trade, Fabrizio quickly distinguished himself in the field through his adept negotiation skills, strategic vision, and unparalleled knowledge of the project materials market. His career trajectory has seen him collaborate with leading names in the construction, oil & gas, and petrochemical industries, earning a reputation for excellence in executing large-scale projects (EPC Contractors, Oil & Gas End Users). At the core of Fabrizio's success is his ability to understand the intricate needs of EPC contractors and end users, aligning these with the capabilities of manufacturers and stockists. He excels in orchestrating the entire supply chain process, from product specification and procurement to logistics and on-time delivery, ensuring that each project phase is executed flawlessly. Fabrizio's role involves intense coordination and communication, leveraging his extensive network within the industry to negotiate competitive prices, manage complex logistical challenges, and navigate the regulatory landscape of international trade. His strategic approach to package assembly and delivery has resulted in cost efficiencies, timely project execution, and high satisfaction levels among stakeholders. Beyond his professional achievements, Fabrizio is an active participant in industry forums and conferences, such as Adipec, Tube, and similar, where he shares insights on market trends, supply chain optimization, and the future of project materials trading. His contributions to the field are not only limited to his operational excellence but also include mentoring young professionals entering the trade. Fabrizio is one of the co-founders of Projectmaterials, a B2B marketplace targeting the above markets. https://www.linkedin.com/in/fvs20092023/

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