hss

Understand Structural Hollow Sections (HSS: CHS, SHS, RHS Types with Weights)

hss

Understand Structural Hollow Sections (HSS: CHS, SHS, RHS Types with Weights)

Structural Hollow Sections (HSS) are steel products used for construction and mechanical applications. HSSs are available in three basic shapes, circular/round (CHS), square (SHS), and rectangular (RHS). The article reviews each type, the ASTM/ISO specifications, and provide dimensions & weights for the most common sizes. To calculate the weight of steel plates easily, use our online calculator.

STRUCTURAL HOLLOW SECTIONS (HSS)

WHAT ARE HOLLOW SECTIONS?

HSS Definition

Hollow Structural Sections (HSS) are steel sections that come in a variety of shapes, including round (CHS), square (SHS), and rectangular (RHS).

These structural elements are made from steel and are used in a wide range of construction and mechanical applications due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, uniformity of shape, size, strength, and aesthetic appeal. Round and square HSS are the most commonly used types of structural hollow sections.

HSS Key Features and Benefits

  • Versatility: HSS can be used in a broad range of structural and mechanical applications. They are favored in modern architecture and construction for both their practical and aesthetic qualities.
  • Efficiency: The hollow nature of HSS makes them lighter than solid steel sections of equivalent strength, leading to savings in material and transportation costs, as well as ease of installation.
  • Durability: With the proper coating or galvanization, HSSs are highly resistant to corrosion and can maintain their structural integrity over long periods, even in harsh environments.
  • Aesthetic Appeal: HSSs have a clean, streamlined appearance that is often sought after in contemporary architectural design. They can be left exposed in the design of buildings for a modern look.

Applications

  • Construction: Used as load-bearing columns, beams, and in the framing of buildings, stadiums, and bridges.
  • Mechanical Applications: Employed in manufacturing heavy machinery, automotive frames, and conduits for electrical wiring and fluid transport pipelines.
  • Architectural: Integral to the design of modern buildings, providing both structural support and aesthetic appeal in facades, canopies, and other architectural elements.

HSS are manufactured through a process that involves forming and welding steel into the desired shape. Advanced manufacturing techniques ensure tight tolerances and uniform mechanical properties across the section. The versatility and efficiency of HSS make them a preferred choice for a wide array of structural and mechanical applications.

HSS TYPES (SHAPES)

HSSs come in three primary shapes: Circular Hollow Sections (CHS), Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS), and Square Hollow Sections (SHS).

HSS hollow sections
HSS hollow sections

Each has unique properties and applications, making them suitable for a wide range of uses.

Circular Hollow Sections (CHS)

  • Shape: CHSs have a circular or round cross-sectional shape.
  • Properties: The symmetrical geometry of CHS provides uniform strength and stiffness in all directions, making them highly resistant to multi-directional loading and torsion. The absence of corners reduces the likelihood of stress concentrations, enhancing their structural integrity.
  • Applications: CHS are commonly used in construction as columns, braces, and trusses. They are also favored in applications requiring fluid conveyance, such as water and gas pipelines, due to the smooth and uniform internal surface that minimizes resistance and turbulence.

Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS)

  • Shape: RHS have a rectangular cross-section with flat faces and sharp corners.
  • Properties: RHSs provide excellent resistance to bending in two principal directions, which makes them suitable for applications where strength and rigidity are required along specific axes. The sharp corners can be more prone to stress concentrations but also allow for easier connection and joining.
  • Applications: RHS are often used in construction for frameworks, structural supports, and architectural elements where the rectangular shape can be an aesthetic or functional requirement. They are also used in machinery and for structural components in vehicles.

Square Hollow Sections (SHS)

  • Shape: SHSs have a square cross-section that combines the benefits of CHS and RHS, offering uniformity but with a more defined aesthetic appeal.
  • Properties: Like RHS, SHSs offer high resistance to bending in two principal directions. The square shape provides symmetry, making them somewhat more resistant to torsion than RHS. The corners are subject to stress concentrations but facilitate easy connections.
  • Applications: SHSs are versatile and used in a variety of structural applications, including construction, framework, and supports where the square geometry can be a design feature. They are also used in industrial and residential furnishings.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR HSS

Both American and European standards exist to govern the production and use of these materials, ensuring they meet the required safety, quality, and performance criteria. Here’s a closer look at the key specifications for round, rectangular, and square HSS in both American and European contexts:

American Specifications for HSS

ASTM A500

  • Title: Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes

  • Scope: Covers cold-formed welded and seamless carbon steel round, square, rectangular, or specially shaped structural tubing for construction of bridges, buildings, and for structural purposes. It specifies mechanical properties and chemical compositions.

ASTM A1085

  • Title: Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded Carbon Steel Hollow Structural Sections (HSS)

  • Scope: A more recent specification provides for tighter tolerances and higher strength-to-weight ratios than A500. It applies to circular, square, and rectangular HSS and is intended to improve efficiency in design and reduce the cost of construction.

European Specifications for HSS

EN 10210

  • Title: Hot Finished Structural Hollow Sections of Non-Alloy and Fine Grain Steels

  • Scope: Specifies the technical delivery conditions for hot-finished hollow sections of circular, square, rectangular, or other shapes. The standard covers non-alloy and fine-grain steels, detailing dimensions and tolerances, mechanical properties, and chemical composition.

EN 10219

  • Title: Cold-Formed Welded Structural Hollow Sections of Non-Alloy and Fine Grain Steels

  • Scope: Similar to EN 10210 but for cold-formed welded HSS. This standard specifies technical delivery conditions for cold-formed welded circular, square, and rectangular hollow sections. It includes details on dimensions and tolerances, mechanical properties, and chemical composition.

Key Differences and Similarities

  • Manufacturing Process: ASTM standards distinguish between seamless and welded constructions, while EN standards cover hot-finished (EN 10210) and cold-formed (EN 10219) products, focusing on the final mechanical properties and dimensions.
  • Material Grades: Both standards specify different material grades based on the chemical composition and mechanical properties. European standards use part of the EN 10025 specifications for determining steel grades, while ASTM standards have their own grading system.
  • Scope of Application: ASTM A1085 was developed to address some of the design limitations of ASTM A500, offering higher strength and better performance for certain applications. Similarly, EN 10210 and EN 10219 provide options for hot-finished or cold-formed sections, respectively, allowing engineers to select materials based on specific structural or aesthetic requirements.
  • Geographic and Regulatory Context: The choice between American (ASTM) and European (EN) specifications often depends on the project’s location and the local regulatory environment. Engineers must comply with the standards and codes that are legally mandated or widely accepted in the region where the construction takes place.

HSS DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS

 

chs hollow section
CHS Round Hollow Section Sizes

ROUND/CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS (CHS)

CHS SizeWeight (kg./m)Diameter (mm)Wall Thickness (mm)
21.3 x 3.21.421.33.2
26.9 x 3.21.926.93.2
33.7 x 2.6233.72.6
33.7 x 3.22.433.73.2
33.7 x 42.933.74
42.4 x 2.62.642.42.6
42.4 x 3.23.142.43.2
42.4 x 43.842.44
48.3 x 3.23.648.33.2
48.3 x 44.448.34
48.3 x 55.348.35
60.3 x 3.24.560.33.2
60.3 x 45.660.34
60.3 x 56.860.35
76.1 x 3.25.876.13.2
76.1 x 47.176.14
76.1 x 58.876.15
88.9 x 3.26.888.93.2
88.9 x 48.488.94
88.9 x 510.388.95
114.3 x 3.69.8114.33.6
114.3 x 513.5114.35
114.3 x 6.316.8114.36.3
139.7 x 516.6139.75
139.7 x 6.320.7139.76.3
139.7 x 826139.78
139.7 x 1032139.710
168.3 x 520.1168.35
168.3 x 6.325.2168.36.3
168.3 x 831.6168.38
168.3 x 1039168.310
193.7 x 523.3193.75
193.7 x 5.425.1193.75.4
193.7 x 6.329.1193.76.3
193.7 x 836.6193.78
193.7 x 1045.3193.710
193.7 x 12.555.9193.712.5
193.7 x 1670.1193.716
219.1 x 526.4219.15
219.1 x 6.333.1219.16.3
219.1 x 841.6219.18
219.1 x 1051.6219.110
219.1 x 12.563.7219.112.5
219.1 x 1680.1219.116
219.1 x 2098.2219.120
244.5 x 6.337244.56.3
244.5 x 846.7244.58
244.5 x 1057.8244.510
244.5 x 12.571.5244.512.5
244.5 x 1690.2244.516
244.5 x 20111244.520
273 x 6.341.42736.3
273 x 852.32738
273 x 1064.927310
273 x 12.580.327312.5
273 x 1610127316
273 x 2012527320
273 x 2515327325
323.9 x 6.349.3323.96.3
323.9 x 862.3323.98
323.9 x 1077.4323.910
323.9 x 12.596323.912.5
323.9 x 16121323.916
323.9 x 20150323.920
323..9 x 25184323.925
355.6 x 868.6355.68
355.6 x 1085.2355.610
355.6 x 12.5106355.612.5
355.6 x 16134355.616
355.6 x 20166355.620
355.6 x 25204355.625
406.4 x 1097.8406.410
406.4 x 12.5121406.412.5
406.4 x 16154406.416
406 x 20191406.420
406.4 x 25235406.425
406.4 x 32295406.432
457 x 1011045710
457 x 12.513745712.5
457 x 1617445716
457 x 2021645720
457 x 2526645725
457 x 3233545732
457 x 4041145740

 

 

shs
SHS Square Hollow Section Sizes

SQUARE HOLLOW SECTIONS (SHS)

SHS SizeWeight (kg./m)Height (mm)Width (mm)Wall Thickness (mm)
20 x 20 x 21.120202
20 x 20 x 2.51.320202.5
25 x 25 x 21425252
25 x 25 x 2.51.725252.5
25 x 25 x 3225253
30 x 30 x 21.730302
30 x 30 x 2.52.130302.5
30 x 30 x 32.530303
40 x 40 x 2.52.940402.5
40 x 40 x 33.440403
40 x 40 x 3.23.640403.2
40 x 40 x 3.6440403.6
40 x 40 x 44.440404
40 x 40 x 55.340405
50 x 50 x 2.53.750502.5
50 x 50 x 34.450503
50 x 50 x 3.24.650503.2
50 x 50 x 3.65.150503.6
50 x 50 x 45.650504
50 x 50 x 56.950505
50 x 50 x 6850506
50 x 50 x 6.38.350506.3
60 x 60 x 2.54.560602.5
60 x 60 x 35.360603
60 x 60 x 3.25.660603.2
60 x 60 x 3.66.360603.6
60 x 60 x 46.960604
60 x 60 x 58.460605
60 x 60 x 69.960606
60 x 60 x 6.310.360606.3
60 x 60 x 812.560608
70 x 70 x 36.270703
70 x 70 x 3.26.670703.2
70 x 70 x 3.67.470703.6
70 x 70 x 48.270704
70 x 70 x 51070705
70 x 70 x 611.870706
70 x 70 x 6.312.370706.3
70 x 70 x 81570708
80 x 80 x 37.280803
80 x 80 x 3.27.680803.2
80 x 80 x 3.68.580803.6
80 x 80 x 49.480804
80 x 80 x 511.680805
80 x 80 x 613.680806
80 x 80 x 6.314.280806.3
80 x 80 x 817.880808
90 x 90 x 513.190905
90 x 90 x 615.590906
90 x 90 x 6.316.290906.3
90 x 90 x 820.190908
100 x 100 x 3.610.81001003.6
100 x 100 x 411.91001004
100 x 100 x 514.71001005
100 x 100 x 617.41001006
100 x 100 x 6.318.21001006.3
100 x 100 x 822.61001008
100 x 100 x 1027.410010010
120 x 120 x 414.41201204
120 x 120 x 5181201205
120 x 120 x 621.21201206
120 x 120 x 6.322.21201206.3
120 x 120 x 827.61201208
120 x 120 x 1033.712012010
120 x 120 x 1239.512012012
120 x 120 x 12.540.912012012.5
140 x 140 x 5211401405
140 x 140 x 624.91401406
140 x 140 x 6.326.11401406.3
140 x 140 x 832.61401408
140 x 140 x 104014014010
140 x 140 x 124714014012
140 x 140 x 12.548.714014012.5
150 x 150 x 522.61501505
150 x 150 x 626.81501506
150 x 150 x 6.328.11501506.3
150 x 150 x 835.11501508
150 x 150 x 1043.115015010
150 x 150 x 1250.815015012
150 x 150 x 12.552.715015012.5
150 x 150 x 1665.215015016
160 x 160 x 524.11601605
160 x 160 x 628.71601606
160 x 160 x 6.330.11601606.3
160 x 160 x 837.61601608
160 x 160 x 1046.316016010
160 x 160 x 1254.616016012
160 x 160 x 12.556.616016012.5
160 x 160 x 1670.216016016
180 x 180 x 527.31801805
180 x 180 x 632.51801806
180 x 180 x 6.3341801806.3
180 x 180 x 842.71801808
180 x 180 x 1052.518018010
180 x 180 x 1262.118018012
180 x 180 x 12.564.418018012.5
180 x 180 x 1680.218018016
200 x 200 x 530.42002005
200 x 200 x 636.22002006
200 x 200 x 6.3382002006.3
200 x 200 x 847.72002008
200 x 200 x 1058.820020010
200 x 200 x 1269.620020012
200 x 200 x 12.572.320020012.5
200 x 200 x 1690.320020016
220 x 220 x 6402202206
220 x 220 x 6.341.92202206.3
220 x 220 x 852.72202208
220 x 220 x 1065.122022010
220 x 220 x 1277.222022012
220 x 220 x 12.580.122022012.5
220 x 220 x 1610022022016
250 x 250 x 538.32502505
250 x 250 x 645.72502506
250 x 250 x 6.347.92502506.3
250 x 250 x 860.32502508
250 x 250 x 1074.525025010
250 x 250 x 1288.525025012
250 x 250 x 12.591.925025012.5
250 x 250 x 1611525025016
260 x 260 x 647.62602606
260 x 260 x 6.349.92602606.3
260 x 260 x 862.82602608
260 x 260 x 1077.726026010
260 x 260 x 1292.226026012
260 x 260 x 12.595.826026012.5
260 x 260 x 1612026026016
300 x 300 x 655.13003006
300 x 300 x 6.357.83003006.3
300 x 300 x 872.83003008
300 x 300 x 1090.230030010
300 x 300 x 1210730030012
300 x 300 x 12.511230030012.5
300 x 300 x 1614130030016
350 x 350 x 885.43503508
350 x 350 x 1010635035010
350 x 350 x 1212635035012
350 x 350 x 12.513135035012.5
350 x 350 x 1616635035016
400 x 400 x 897.94004008
400 x 400 x 1012240040010
400 x 400 x 1214540040012
400 x 400 x 12.515140040012.5
400 x 400 x 1619140040016
400 x 400 x 2023540040020

 

rhs
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section Sizes

RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS (RHS)

RHS SizeWeight (kg./m)Height (mm)Width (mm)Wall Thickness (mm)
50 x 25 x 2.52.750252.5
50 x 25 x 2.52.750252.5
50 x 25 x 33.250253
50 x 30 x 2.52.950302.5
50 x 30 x 33.450303
50 x 30 x 3.23.650303.2
50 x 30 x 3.6450303.6
50 x 30 x 44.450304
50 x 30 x 55.350305
60 x 40 x 2.53.760402.5
60 x 40 x 34.460403
60 x 40 x 3.24.660403.2
60 x 40 x 3.65.160403.6
60 x 40 x 45.660404
60 x 40 x 56.960405
60 x 40 x 6860406
60 x 40 x 6.38.360406.3
80 x 40 x 35.380403
80 x 40 x 3.25.680403.2
80 x 40 x 3.66.380403.6
80 x 40 x 46.980404
80 x 40 x 58.480405
80 x 40 x 69.980406
80 x 40 x 6.310.380406.3
80 x 40 x 812.580408
90 x 50 x 36.290503
90 x 50 x 3.26.690503.2
90 x 50 x 3.67.490503.6
90 x 50 x 48.290504
90 x 50 x 51090505
90 x 50 x 611.890506
90 x 50 x 6.312.390506.3
90 x 50 x 81590508
100 x 50 x 36.7100503
100 x 50 x 3.27.1100503.2
100 x 50 x 3.68100503.6
100 x 50 x 48.8100504
100 x 50 x 510.8100505
100 x 50 x 612.7100506
100 x 50 x 6.313.3100506.3
100 x 50 x 816.3100508
100 x 60 x 37.2100603
100 x 60 x 3.27.6100603.2
100 x 60 x 3.68.5100603.6
100 x 60 x 49.4100604
100 x 60 x 511.6100605
100 x 60 x 613.6100606
100 x 60 x 6.314.2100606.3
100 x 60 x 817.5100608
120 x 60 x 3.69.7120603.6
120 x 60 x 410.7120604
120 x 60 x 513.1120605
120 x 60 x 615.5120606
120 x 60 x 6.316.2120606.3
120 x 60 x 820.1120608
120 x 60 x 1024.61206010
120 x 80 x 3.610.8120803.6
120 x 80 x 411.9120804
120 x 80 x 514.7120805
120 x 80 x 617.4120806
120 x 80 x 6.318.2120806.3
120 x 80 x 822.6120808
120 x 80 x 1027.41208010
140 x 80 x 413.2140804
140 x 80 x 516.3140805
140 x 80 x 619.3140806
140 x 80 x 6.320.2140806.3
140 x 80 x 825.1140808
140 x 80 x 1030.61408010
150 x 100 x 415.11501004
150 x 100 x 518.61501005
150 x 100 x 622.11501006
150 x 100 x 6.323.11501006.3
150 x 100 x 828.91501008
150 x 100 x 1035.315010010
150 x 100 x 1241.415010012
150 x 100 x 12.542.815010012.5
160 x 80 x 414.4160804
160 x 80 x 517.8160805
160 x 80 x 621.2160806
160 x 80 x 6.322.2160806.3
160 x 80 x 827.6160808
160 x 80 x 1033.71608010
160 x 80 x 1239.51608012
160 x 80 x 12.540.9|1608012.5
180 x 100 x 416.91801004
180 x 100 x 5211801005
180 x 100 x 624.91801006
180 x 100 x 6.326.11801006.3
180 x 100 x 832.61801008
180 x 100 x 104018010010
180 x 100 x 124718010012
180 x 100 x 12.548.718010012.5
200 x 100 x 418.12001004
200 x 100 x 522.62001005
200 x 100 x 626.82001006
200 x 100 x 6.328.12001006.3
200 x 100 x 835.12001008
200 x 100 x 1043.120010010
200 x 100 x 1250.820010012
200 x 100 x 12.552.720010012.5
200 x 100 x 1665.220010016
200 x 120 x 628.72001206
200 x 120 x 6.329.92001206.3
200 x 120 x 837.32001208
200 x 120 x 1045.920012010
200 x 120 x 1254.520012012
200 x 120 x 12.555.720012012.5
250 x 150 x 530.42501505
250 x 150 x 636.22501506
250 x 150 x 6.338|2501506.3
250 x 150 x 847.72501508
250 x 150 x 1058.825015010
250 x 150 x 1269.625015012
250 x 150 x 12.572.325015012.5
250 x 150 x 1690.325015016
260 x 180 x 6402601806
260 x 180 x 6.341.92601806.3
260 x 180 x 852.72601808
260 x 180 x 1065.126018010
260 x 180 x 1277.226018012
260 x 180 x 12.580.126018012.5
260 x 180 x 1610026018016
300 x 200 x 538.33002005
300 x 200 x 645.73002006
300 x 200 x 6.347.93002006.3
300 x 200 x 860.33002008
300 x 200 x 1074.530020010
300 x 200 x 1288.530020012
300 x 200 x 12.591.930020012.5
300 x 200 x 1611530020016
350 x 250 x 655.13502506
350 x 250 x 6.357.83502506.3
350 x 250 x 872.83502508
350 x 250 x 1090.235025010
350 x 250 x 12107|35025012
350 x 250 x 12.511235025012.5
350 x 250 x 1614135025016
400 x 200 x 655.14002006
400 x 200 x 6.357.84002006.3
400 x 200 x 872.84002008
400 x 200 x 1090.240020010
400 x 200 x 1210740020012
400 x 200 x 12.511240020012.5
400 x 200 x 1614140020016
450 x 250 x 885.44502508
450 x 250 x 1010645025010
450 x 250 x 1212645025012
450 x 250 x 12.513145025012.5
450 x 250 x 1616645025016
500 x 300 x 897.95003008
500 x 300 x 1012250030010
500 x 300 x 1214550030012
500 x 300 x 12.515150030012.5
500 x 300 x 1619150030016
500 x 300 x 2023550030020

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About the Author

Picture of Fabrizio S.

Fabrizio S.

Fabrizio is a seasoned professional in the international trading of materials for projects, including piping, steel, and metal commodities with a distinguished career spanning over two decades. He has become a pivotal figure in the industry, renowned for his expertise in bridging the gap between EPC contractors, end users, manufacturers, and stockists to facilitate the seamless delivery of complex piping product packages across the globe. Starting his journey with a strong academic background in business administration and international trade, Fabrizio quickly distinguished himself in the field through his adept negotiation skills, strategic vision, and unparalleled knowledge of the project materials market. His career trajectory has seen him collaborate with leading names in the construction, oil & gas, and petrochemical industries, earning a reputation for excellence in executing large-scale projects (EPC Contractors, Oil & Gas End Users). At the core of Fabrizio's success is his ability to understand the intricate needs of EPC contractors and end users, aligning these with the capabilities of manufacturers and stockists. He excels in orchestrating the entire supply chain process, from product specification and procurement to logistics and on-time delivery, ensuring that each project phase is executed flawlessly. Fabrizio's role involves intense coordination and communication, leveraging his extensive network within the industry to negotiate competitive prices, manage complex logistical challenges, and navigate the regulatory landscape of international trade. His strategic approach to package assembly and delivery has resulted in cost efficiencies, timely project execution, and high satisfaction levels among stakeholders. Beyond his professional achievements, Fabrizio is an active participant in industry forums and conferences, such as Adipec, Tube, and similar, where he shares insights on market trends, supply chain optimization, and the future of project materials trading. His contributions to the field are not only limited to his operational excellence but also include mentoring young professionals entering the trade. Fabrizio is one of the co-founders of Projectmaterials, a B2B marketplace targeting the above markets. https://www.linkedin.com/in/fvs20092023/

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