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Technical Library, Valves, Valves Materials

Forged Valve Materials (ASTM A105, A350, A182)

Forged Valve Materials (ASTM A105, A350, A182)

A forged valve is a mechanical device featuring a forged body, i.e. a body manufactured by forging monolithic blocks of steel. Forged valve bodies are common for small diameter valves (generally, below 2 inches) or for larger high-pressure valves which require extreme robustness and solidity.  The ASTM A105 (buy here), ASTM A350 (buy here), and ASTM A182 (buy here) specifications cover materials for carbon, alloy, and stainless steel forged valves. Forged bodies are less prone to leakages than cast valve body materials.

 

ASTM A105 FORGED CARBON STEEL VALVE

ASTM A105 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

ASTM A105  Chemical Composition, %
Carbon, max 0.35
Manganese 0.60-1.05
Phosphorus, max 0.035
Sulfur, max 0.04
Silicon 0.10-0.35
Copper, max 0.4
Nickel, max 0.4
Chromium, max 0.3
Molybdenum, max 0.12
Vanadium, max 0.08

 

ASTM A105 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

ASTM A105 PROPERTY Value 
Tensile Strength, min: 70,000 psi (485 MPa]
Min. Yield Point: 36,000 psi [250 MPa]
Reduction of the area, min: 30% min
Hardness, HB, max 187

 

ASTM A350 FORGED CARBON STEEL VALVE (LTCS)

ASTM A350 LF2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

Element Chemical Composition, %
Carbon 0.30 max
Silicon 0.15 – 0.30
Manganese 0.6 – 1.35
Phosphorus 0.35 max
Sulfur 0.040 max
Molybdenum 0.12 max
Copper 0.40 max
Chromium 0.30 max
Nickel 0.40 max
Vanadium 0.08 max
Niobium 0.02 max

 

ASTM A350 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Mechanical Property Values
Tensile Strength 485 – 655 N/mm2
0.2% Yield Strength 250 N/mm2 min
Elongation 22% min
Reduction of Area 30% min
Charpy Impact Toughness 20 average / 16 min J at -46o C
Hardness 197 HB

 

ASTM A182 FORGED ALLOY STEEL VALVE

ASTM A182 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (ALLOY STEEL)

CHEMICAL ELEMENT LOW ALLOY STEEL MEDIUM ALLOY STEEL
F11 CL2 F22 CL3 F5 F9
CARBON 0.10-0.20 0.05-0.15 0.15 MAX 0.15 MAX
MANGANESE 0.30-0.80 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60
PHOSPHORUS MAX 0.040 0.040 0.03 0.030
SULFUR MAX 0.040 0.040 0.03 0.030
SILICON 0.50-1.00 0.50 MAX 0.50 MAX 0.50-1.00
NICKEL MAX 0.50
CHROMIUM 1.00-1.50 2.00-2.50 4.00-6.00 8.0-10.0
MOLYBDENUM 0.44-0.65 0.87-1.13 0.44-0.65 0.90-1.10
COPPER MA
COLUMBIUM MAX
VANADIUM MAX

 

ASTM A182 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (ALLOY STEEL)

TENSILE STRENGTH PSI (MPA) 70,000 (485) 75,000 (515) 70,000 (485) 85,000 (585)
YIELD STRENGTH PSI MIN 40,000 (275) 45,000 (310) 40,000 (275) 55,000 (380)
ELONGATION 2” % MIN 20 20 20 20
REDUCTION AREA % MIN 30 30 35 40
HARDNESS (HB) MAX* 143 ~ 207 156 ~ 207 143 ~ 217 179 ~ 217

 

ASTM A182 MATERIAL SELECTION

FORGED GRADE DESIGNATION RECOMMENDED SERVICE COMMON API TRIM #
150 TO 600 # 900 TO 2500 #
A182 F1 C-1/2 Mo Low Alloy Steel Non-corrosive applications Including water, oil and gases at temperatures between 29 ~ 593ºC* (Not prolonged use > 470ºC). 8 8A 12/12A 5/5A
12
16
A182 F2 0.75% Ni; Mo; 0.75% Cr Low Alloy Steel Non-corrosive applications including water, oil and gases at temperatures F2:-29ºC ~ 538ºC, WC5: -29ºC ~ 575ºC 8 8A 12/12A 5/5A
12
16
A182 F11 1 1/4% Chrome; 1/2% Moly Low Alloy Steel Non-corrosive applications including water, oil and gases at temperatures between -30ºC (-20ºF) and +593ºC (+1100ºF). 8 8A 12/12A 5/5A
12
16
A182 F22 2 1/4% Chrome Low Alloy Steel Non-corrosive applications including water, oil and gases at temperatures between -30ºC (-20ºF) and +593ºC (+1100ºF). 8 8A 12/12A 5/5A
12
16
A182 F5/F5a 5% Chrome; 1/2% Moly, Medium Alloy Steel Mild corrosive or erosive applications as well as non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -30ºC (-20ºF) and +650ºC (+1200ºF). 8 8A 12/12A 5/5A
12
16
A182 F9 9% Chrome; 1% Moly, Medium Alloy Steel Mild corrosive or erosive applications as well as non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -30ºC (-20ºF) and +650ºC (+1200ºF). 8 8A 12/12A 5/5A
12
16
A182 F91 9% Chrome; 1% Moly; V-N, Medium Alloy Steel Mild corrosive or erosive applications as well as non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -30ºC (-20ºF) and +650ºC (+1200ºF). 8 8A 12/12A 5/5A
12
16

ASTM A182 FOR FORGED STAINLESS STEEL VALVES

ASTM A182 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (STAINLESS STEEL GRADES)

ASTM A182 Grade C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo
F304 0.08 2 0.045 0.03 1 8.0-11.0 18.0-20.0 _
F304L 0.03 2 0.045 0.03 1 8.0-13.0 18.0-20.0 _
F316 0.08 2 0.045 0.03 1 10.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.00-3.00
F316L 0.03 2 0.045 0.03 1 10.0-15.0 16.0-18.0 2.00-3.00
F321 0.08 2 0.045 0.03 1 9.0-12.0 17.0-19.0 _

 

ASTM A182 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (STAINLESS STEEL)

ASTM A182 Grade Tensile Strength
min, MPa
Yield point
min, Mpa
Elongation
min, %
Reduction of area
min, %
ASTM A182 F304 515 205 30 50
ASTM A182 F304L 485 170 30 50
ASTM A182 F316 515 205 30 50
ASTM A182 F316L 485 170 30 50
ASTM A182 F321 515 205 30 50

 

FORGED VALVES MATERIAL SELECTION

Forged valves materials

The table shows the most common materials for forged valves and their respective recommended service:

Material Grade  Designation ASTM
Forging Specification
Recommended Service
A105N 1/4% Max Carbon Steel ASTM
A105N
Non-corrosive applications including water, oil and, gases at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +800°F (+427°C).
LF2 Low Temp Carbon Steel ASTM A350
Grade LF2
Non-corrosive applications at temperatures from -50°F (-46°C) to +800°F (+427°C).
F5 5%Chrome 1/2%Moly ASTM A182
Grade F5
Non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+650°C).
F9 9%Chrome 1%Moly ASTM A182
Grade F9
Non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+650°C).
F11 1-1/4%Chrome 1/2%Moly ASTM A182
Grade F11
Non-corrosive applications including water, oil and, gases at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1100°F (+593°C).
F22 2-1/4%Chrome 1%Moly ASTM A182
Grade F22
Non-corrosive applications including water, oil and, gases at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1100°F (+593°C).
F91 9%Chrome 1%Moly ASTM A182
Grade F91
Non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+650°C).
304 19%Chrome 9%Nickel ASTM A182
Grade F304
Applications at temperatures up to +1000°F (+538°C).
304L 19%Chrome, 10%Nickel Low Carbon ASTM A182
Grade F304L
Applications at temperatures up to +800°F (+427°C).
304H 18%Chrome 9%Nickel ASTM A182
Grade F304H
Applications at temperatures up to +800°F (+427°C).
316 19%Chrome, 10%Nickel 2%Moly ASTM A182
Grade F316
Applications at temperatures up to +1000°F (+538°C).
316L 19%Chrome, 10%Nickel 2%Moly, Low Carbon ASTM A182
Grade F316L
Applications at temperatures up to +800°F (+427°C).
316H 18%Chrome, 8%Nickel with Molybdenum ASTM A182
Grade F316H
Applications at temperatures up to +800°F (+427°C).
317L 25%Chrome, 21%Nickel 3/4%Moly ASTM A182
Grade F317L
317L has superior corrosion resistance in difficult environments and can be used at temperatures between +1700°F (+927°C) to +2200°F (+1204°C).
321 18%Chrome, 10%Nickel with Titanium ASTM A182
Grade F321
Applications at temperatures up to +800°F (+427°C).
347 18%Chrome, 10%Nickel with Columbium ASTM A182
Grade F347
347 has good intergranular-corrosion resistance and is resistant to atmospheric conditions between temperatures of +800°F(+427°C) and +1650°F(+899°C).
410 13%Chrome 1/2%Moly ASTM A182
Grade F6a
410 is the basic martensitic stainless. It has good impact strength, corrosion and scaling resistance up to +1200°F (+649°C).
420 13%Chrome, 1%Nickel 1/4%Moly ASTM A276
Grade 420
Full corrosion resistance only in the hardened or hardened and stress relieved conditions. The temperature should be below +800°F (+427°C).
17-4PH 15-1/2%Chrome 4-1/2%Nickel ASTM A564
Grade 630
Good corrosive resistance properties at temperatures up to +600°F (+316°C).
440C 17%Chrome 3/4%Moly ASTM A276
Grade 440C
This grade is used in the hard plus tempered condition. For best corrosion resistance, the tempering temperature should be below +800°F (+427°C).
ALLOY 20 20%Chrome, 35%Nickel 2-1/2%Moly ASTM A182
Grade F20
Good resistance to hot sulfuric acid to +800°F (+425°C).
F51
(Duplex 2205)
22%Chrome, 5%Nickel 3%Moly ASTM A182
Grade F51
F51 is a super duplex stainless steel. Good  Moderate to good corrosion resistance in a variety of environments. Service to +600°F (+316°C).
F53
(Duplex 2507)
25%Chrome, 7%Nickel 4-1/2%Moly ASTM A182
Grade F53
F53 is a super duplex stainless steel. This material has excellent corrosion resistance in a variety of environments. Service to +600°F (+316°C).
F55 25%Chrome, 7%Nickel 3-1/2%Moly ASTM A182
Grade F55
This material combines high mechanical strength and good ductility with excellent corrosion resistance in environments with temperatures up to +600°F (+316°C).
400 Monel ASTM B564
Grade 400
This nickel alloy has good corrosion resistance, good weldability and, high strength. Great mechanical properties at subzero temperatures up to +1000°F (+538°C).
K500 Monel QQ-N-286
Grade K500
This nickel alloy has good corrosion resistance. Monel K500 has great mechanical properties at subzero temperatures up to about +480°C.
600 Inconel ASTM B564
Grade 600
This nickel-chromium alloy has good oxidation resistance at higher temperatures to +2000°F (+1093°C)
625 Inconel ASTM B564
Grade 625
This nickel-chromium alloy has good carburization and oxidation in high-resistance at higher temperatures to +2000°F (+1093°C).
800H/HT Incoloy ASTM B564
Grade 800
This nickel-chromium alloy has good carburization and oxidation in high-resistance and normally used in temperatures above +1100°F (+593°C).
825 Incoloy ASTM B564
Grade 825
Alloy 825 has a high level of corrosion resistance in both reducing and oxidizing environments and good mechanical properties at temperatures up to +1000°F (+538°C).
X-750 Inconel ASTM B637
Grade X-750
This nickel-chromium alloy has good resistance to corrosion and oxidation along with high tensile and creep-rupture properties at temperatures up to +1300°F (+700°C).
C276 Hastelloy ASTM B564
Grade C276
This nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy has excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media and corrosion resistant to ambient temperatures.

To match these forged grades with the corresponding cast grades, consult this article.

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