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instrumentation Archives - Projectmaterials

Miscellaneous technical and commercial articles covering materials for energy projects

LEL and UEL for Explosive Gases Explained

The lower explosive limit (LEL) is the minimum concentration of a specific combustible gas required to fire combustion when in contact with oxygen (air). If the concentration of the gas is below the LEL value, the mix between the gas itself and the air is too weak to spark. The upper explosive limit (UEL) is the… read more »

Tube Compression Fittings (Double Ferrule)

Compression fittings are used to create leak-free tube connections easily and quickly. Double ferrule compression fittings feature an outer nut, two deformable ferrules in soft alloy or non-ferrous metals and, a tube fitting body and are available for metric and fractional tube sizes. When the fitting nut is screwed on the tube, the ferrules get deformed to… read more »

BWG and SWG Tube Size Chart

BWG and SWG are alternative measurements for steel tubing sizes (outside diameter and wall thickness). BWG stands for “Birmingham Wire Gauge” (or “Stubs Iron Wire Gauge”). Each BWG number (example from 10 to 22) represents a specific steel tubing thickness, which can be converted in inches or mm. SWG stands for “Standard Wire Gauge” (also… read more »

P&ID Symbols (Complete List)

A complete collection of the most used P&ID symbols for lines, piping, valves, instruments, pumps, compressors, pressure equipment and other mechanical equipment.  WHAT IS P&ID? P&ID is the acronym for “Piping and instrumentation diagram”, i.e. a very detailed diagram showing the processes happening within a plant, the involved equipment, and their interconnections. A set of… read more »