Various Technical Topics

Miscellaneous technical articles about mechanical and electromechanical products for projects

Cast vs. Forged Steel: Key Differences

Steel products may be manufactured either by casting or forging steel. Steel casting is the process by which a metal is heated until it reaches a liquid state and then poured into a mold that shapes the desired product. Steel forging implies the application of mechanical forces to heated solid blocks of steel (such as… read more »

LEL and UEL Explained (Explosive Gas)

The lower explosive limit (LEL) is the minimum concentration of a specific combustible gas required to fire combustion when in contact with oxygen (air). If the concentration of the gas is below the LEL value, the mix between the gas itself and the air is too weak to spark. The upper explosive limit (UEL) is the… read more »

Piping Materials Match Chart (ASTM)

The piping material chart shows the matching ASTM materials for pipes, valves, fittings, flanges and stud bolts. PIPING MATERIALS MATCH CHART The piping ASTM materials match chart shows, for example, that an A106 Gr. A pipe matches with ASTM A234 buttweld fitting, with an ASTM A105 forged fitting, flange or valve, with an A216 WCB cast… read more »

ASME B16.34 Pressure/Temperature Rating

The ASME B16.34 specification covers pressure and temperature ratings for forgings, castings, plate, bar, and tubular products. The ASME B16.34 charts show the max allowed pressure for a material depending on the product rating and the process temperature (the higher the temperature, the lower the pressure at a given rating).    GROUP 1: CARBON AND ALLOY… read more »

Engineering Terms and Abbreviations

The engineering dictionary collects the most used terms, abbreviations, and definitions used in technical and commercial documentation related to project plant construction, materials and project management. A AGA American Gas Association AISI: American Iron & Steel Institute ANSI: American National Standards Institute — Formerly ASA API American Petroleum Institute ASA: American Standard Institute — Now known as ANSI… read more »