Process Instrumentation

Miscellaneous technical articles about mechanical and electromechanical products for projects

Double Ferrule Compression Fittings

Compression fittings are used to create leak-free tube connections easily and quickly. Double ferrule compression fittings feature an outer nut, two deformable ferrules in soft alloy or non-ferrous metals and, a tube fitting body and are available for metric and fractional tube sizes. When the fitting nut is screwed on the tube, the ferrules get deformed to… read more »

BWG and SWG Tube Size Chart

BWG and SWG are alternative measurements for steel tubing sizes (outside diameter and wall thickness). BWG stands for “Birmingham Wire Gauge” (or “Stubs Iron Wire Gauge”). Each BWG number (example from 10 to 22) represents a specific steel tubing thickness, which can be converted in inches or mm. SWG stands for “Standard Wire Gauge” (also… read more »

P&ID Symbols (Complete List)

A complete collection of the most used P&ID symbols for lines, piping, valves, instruments, pumps, compressors, pressure equipment and other mechanical equipment.  WHAT IS P&ID? P&ID is the acronym for “Piping and instrumentation diagram”, i.e. a very detailed diagram showing the processes happening within a plant, the involved equipment, and their interconnections. A set of… read more »

Process Instruments (Measurement Features)

An overview of key concepts about process instrumentation: measurement precision (a static feature that identifies the degree of agreement between the indication of the instrument and the characteristics of the measurand in measurement or monitoring), measurement uncertainty, metrological confirmation, and calibration. MEASUREMENT PRECISION By measurement precision we mean: according to ISO-IMV (International Metrology Vocabulary): “…closeness of agreement… read more »

From BFD to PFD, P&ID, F&ID (Process)

This post illustrates the steps from the initial block and flow diagrams to achieve the final Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) diagrams required for the interpretation and governance of process plants, as well as to highlight and report on the video pages of the Distributed Control System (DCS) measurement and control loops suitable for the… read more »