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Miscellaneous

Miscellaneous technical and commercial articles covering materials for energy projects

What is a Mill Test Certificate (EN 10204 2.1, 3.1, 3.2)?

A Mill Test Certificate (MTC), or Mill Test Report (MTR), is issued by a manufacturer to certify the chemical and mechanical features of a product and its compliance to the applicable norms and technical specifications. Typically, Mill Test Certificates conform to the EN 10204 standard and are related to steel products. MILL TEST CERTIFICATE A… read more »

What are Incoterms? (ExW, FOB, CFR, CPT,…)

Incoterms 2010 (FCA, DAP, EX WORKS, CIF, FOB, CFR, DAT, etc.) define, in a purchase contract, the responsibilities of the buyer and the supplier in the transaction: transfer of ownership of the goods, payment of transportation costs and insurance, loading and unloading risks. Incoterms have been issued by the International Chamber of Commerce in 2010… read more »

Key Shipping Documents for Exporters

An overview of the common documents in the export/import business, divided by type:  financial (invoices, insurance policy), transportation (B/L, AWL, CMR), quality assurance (inspection reports) documents. Exporters shall be familiar with the documents that have to prepared to export the goods to a foreign location. In this article, we review the most common ones and their… read more »

Containers and Pallets: Sizes and Types

Goods can be shipped on wooden, plastic or metallic pallets or containers (20, 40 feet, side or top entry). The article reviews gross and net weights, types and carrying capacity of pallets and containers CONTAINERS 20′ STANDARD CONTAINER INSIDE LENGTH: 5.895 m INSIDE WIDTH: 2.350 m INSIDE HEIGHT: 2.392 m DOOR WIDTH: 2.340 m DOOR HEIGHT: 2.292 m CAPACITY: 33 m3… read more »

6 Types of Payment Terms for Exporters

The most common payment terms for contracts are “open account” (the seller delivers without any guarantee, and expects the payment at a later stage), “documentary collections” (the exchange of the documents representative of the goods and the payment are managed via banks), “letters of credit”, “cash in advance”.  CASH IN ADVANCE (CA) Cash in advance… read more »

Contract Risks: a Checklist for Exporters

Purchase contracts may be filled with risks. In this article, we provide a useful checklist to make sure all major contract risk areas are identified and mitigated with proper actions. Contract risks may come from purchase orders and the attached (or referenced)  General Terms and Conditions of Purchase. A useful read for suppliers dealing with… read more »

5 Practical Ways to Finance Export Sales

In this article, we list the 5 basic ways to finance export sales: factoring, credit forfaiting, banker’s acceptance, EXIM banks. FACTORING Factoring is used by exporters to discount sales invoices and cash in the credit before the due date. With such transaction, the seller/exporter sells the credit to a specialized financial intermediary (generally, a bank or… read more »

CE Marking for Steel Products

CE marking means “Conformité Européenne” and consists in a logo with the two letters “C” and “E”.  A manufacturer stamps a CE logo on its products to confirm that they comply with the applicable EU safety regulations (protection of human life and of the environment). CE marks may be double-checked by a third party or… read more »

What Means RFQ? Request for Quote…

What is a request for quote (RFQ)? And what is the difference between RFQ vs. RFP (request for proposal) and RFI (request for information)? In this article, we explain these terms, which refer to documents issued in different stages of the procurement process in plant project business. RFQ MEANING The term RFQ stands for “request… read more »

Purchase Order and Order Confirmation

A purchase order is a binding document issued by the procurement department for a supplier, stating the terms under which a purchase is made. An order confirmation is a document issued by a seller confirming, to the buyer, the acceptance of a purchase order. Any discrepancy between the purchase order and the order confirmation shall… read more »

Difference Between ODM, OEM and OBM Production Strategies

The terms ODM, OBM, OEM terms designate alternative setups of manufacturing operations. The difference between these production strategies lies in the degree of outsourcing of design, engineering, and manufacturing operations that a brand owner implements (from no outsourcing, i.e. “OBM”, to full outsourcing, i.e. “ODM”).  ODM (Original Design Manufacturing) This is an arrangement by which a manufacturer… read more »

HS Codes for Pipes, Valves, Fittings, Piping

The Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) is a recognized standardization system to classify imported/exported products for taxation and statistical reasons. The nomenclature foresees 21 sections, subdivided into 96 chapters and in above 5.000 headings and subheadings (representing individual commodities).  WHAT ARE HS CODES? The HS system defines a serial number for almost any… read more »

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