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Miscellaneous

Miscellaneous technical and commercial articles covering materials for energy projects

What is a Mill Test Certificate (EN 10204 2.1, 3.1, 3.2)?

A Mill Test Certificate (MTC), or Mill Test Report (MTR), is issued by a manufacturer to certify the chemical and mechanical features of a product and its compliance to the applicable norms and technical specifications. Typically, Mill Test Certificates conform to the EN 10204 standard and are related to steel products. MILL TEST CERTIFICATE A… read more »

Non-Destructive Testing Types (LP/MP/UT/RX)

Non-destructive test (abbreviated, NDT) used to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of a welded connection without damaging the equipment. The most common non-destructive tests are visual inspection, penetrating fluids, magnetic particles, radiographic (RX) and ultrasonic examination (UT). TYPES OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING In this article, we review the most common non-destructive testing techniques used to… read more »

Difference between Cast and Forged Steel

Steel products may be manufactured either by casting or forging steel. Steel casting is the process by which a metal is heated until it reaches a liquid state and then poured into a mold that shapes the desired product. Steel forging implies the application of mechanical forces to heated solid blocks of steel (such as… read more »

LEL and UEL for Explosive Gases Explained

The lower explosive limit (LEL) is the minimum concentration of a specific combustible gas required to fire combustion when in contact with oxygen (air). If the concentration of the gas is below the LEL value, the mix between the gas itself and the air is too weak to spark. The upper explosive limit (UEL) is the… read more »

What is a Hydrostatic Test?

The hydrostatic test consists of filling a piece of equipment with a fluid at test pressure, for a given period of time, to check the existence of leakages. The test is passed if the equipment bears the test pressure without any leakage.  HYDROSTATIC TEST The hydrostatic test is a common procedure to test piping equipment,… read more »

Piping Materials Match Chart (ASTM)

The piping material chart shows the matching ASTM materials for pipes, valves, fittings, flanges and stud bolts. PIPING MATERIALS MATCH CHART The piping ASTM materials match chart shows, for example, that an A106 Gr. A pipe matches with ASTM A234 buttweld fitting, with an ASTM A105 forged fitting, flange or valve, with an A216 WCB cast… read more »

ASME B16.34 Pressure/Temperature Rating

The ASME B16.34 specification covers pressure and temperature ratings for forgings, castings, plate, bar, and tubular products. The ASME B16.34 charts show the max allowed pressure for a material depending on the product rating and the process temperature (the higher the temperature, the lower the pressure at a given rating).    GROUP 1: CARBON AND ALLOY… read more »

Incoterms 2010: FCA, DAP, EX-WORKS, CIF, FOB

Incoterms 2010 (FCA, DAP, EX WORKS, CIF, FOB, CFR, DAT, etc.) define, in a purchase contract, the responsibilities of the buyer and the supplier in the transaction: transfer of ownership of the goods, payment of transportation costs and insurance, loading and unloading risks. Incoterms have been issued by the International Chamber of Commerce in 2010… read more »

Key Shipping Documents for Exporters

An overview of the common documents in the export/import business, divided by type:  financial (invoices, insurance policy), transportation (B/L, AWL, CMR), quality assurance (inspection reports) documents. Exporters shall be familiar with the documents that have to prepared to export the goods to a foreign location. In this article, we review the most common ones and their… read more »

Pipe Color by Fluid Type

Color codes are, in some cases, applied on pipes and other piping materials (such as pipe fittings, flanges, and valves) to facilitate the identification, in the storage warehouse or on the field during project execution, of components manufactured in different materials. PFI ES-22 SPECIFICATION FOR PIPE COLOR CODING The table shows the pipe color coding… read more »

Engineering Terms and Abbreviations

The engineering dictionary collects the most used terms, abbreviations, and definitions used in technical and commercial documentation related to project plant construction, materials and project management. A AGA American Gas Association AISI: American Iron & Steel Institute ANSI: American National Standards Institute — Formerly ASA API American Petroleum Institute ASA: American Standard Institute — Now known as ANSI… read more »

Containers and Pallets: Sizes and Types

Goods can be shipped on wooden, plastic or metallic pallets or containers (20, 40 feet, side or top entry). The article reviews gross and net weights, types and carrying capacity of pallets and containers CONTAINERS 20′ STANDARD CONTAINER INSIDE LENGTH: 5.895 m INSIDE WIDTH: 2.350 m INSIDE HEIGHT: 2.392 m DOOR WIDTH: 2.340 m DOOR HEIGHT: 2.292 m CAPACITY: 33 m3… read more »

Payment Terms: Advance, Net, CAD/DP, LC

The most common payment terms for contracts are “open account” (the seller delivers without any guarantee, and expects the payment at a later stage), “documentary collections” (the exchange of the documents representative of the goods and the payment are managed via banks), “letters of credit”, “cash in advance”.  CASH IN ADVANCE (CA) Cash in advance… read more »

Contract Risks: a Checklist for Exporters

Purchase contracts may be filled with risks. In this article, we provide a useful checklist to make sure all major contract risk areas are identified and mitigated with proper actions. Contract risks may come from purchase orders and the attached (or referenced)  General Terms and Conditions of Purchase. A useful read for suppliers dealing with… read more »

5 Practical Ways to Finance Export Sales

In this article, we list the 5 basic ways to finance export sales: factoring, credit forfaiting, banker’s acceptance, EXIM banks. FACTORING Factoring is used by exporters to discount sales invoices and cash in the credit before the due date. With such transaction, the seller/exporter sells the credit to a specialized financial intermediary (generally, a bank or… read more »

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