CAST VALVES MATERIALS

A cast valve is a mechanical device featuring a cast steel body, i.e. a body manufactured by casting liquid metals into molds. Cast valve bodies are common for valves above 2 inches in diameter (for smaller bore sizes, forged valves are either preferred or the only option).  The ASTM A216 and the ASTM A351 specifications cover materials for carbon, alloy, and stainless steel cast valves. Cast body materials are cheaper than forged bodies but are less resilient.

Cast Valve Materials ASTM A216 and ASTM A351

ASTM A216 CARBON STEEL VALVE

This ASTM specification covers 3 grades of carbon steel (WCA, WCB, and WCC), in terms of chemical composition and mechanical properties.

The grade selection depends on the system design and the service conditions, which affect the required mechanical properties and hence the needed grade. The ASTM A216 specification covers carbon steel castings for valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-containing parts for high-temperature service and of a quality suited for assembly with other castings or wrought steel parts by fusion welding.

ASTM A216 steel castings shall be heat treated and can be manufactured in the annealed, or normalized, or normalized and tempered conditions. The surface of steel castings shall be free of adhering elements such as sand, cracks, hot tears, and other defects.

ASTM A216 carbon steel valves, chemical composition
ASTM A216 GRADE C Mn P S Si Cu Ni Cr Mo V
WCA UNS J02502 0.25(1) 0.70(1) 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.20 1.00
WCB UNS J03002 0.30(2) 1.00(2) 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.20 1.00
WCC UNS J02503 0.25(3) 1.20(3) 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.20 1.00

Notes:

  1. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum Carbon content, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the specified maximum is allowed up to a maximum of 1.10%.
  2. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum Carbon content, an increase of 0.04% Mn above the specified maximum is allowed up to a maximum of 1.28%.
  3. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum Carbon content, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the specified maximum is allowed to a maximum of 1.40%.

 

ASTM A351 STAINLESS STEEL VALVE

ASTM A351 covers austenitic steel castings for valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-containing parts. The most common grades are ASTM A351 CF3, CF8 (SS304), and CF8M (SS316).

The steel shall be made by the electric furnace process with or without separate refining such as argon-oxygen decarburization.

Any ASTM A351 cast part shall receive heat treatment followed by a quench in water or rapid cooling. The steel shall conform to the chemical and mechanical requirements set by the specification.

ASTM A351 stainless steel valves, chemical composition
ASTM A351 GRADE UNS C Mn Si S P Cr Ni Mo Nb V N Cu
CF3+CF3A J9270 0.03 1.5 2.0 0.040 0.040 17.0-21.0 8.0-11.0 0.50
CF8+CF8A J9260 0.08 1.5 2.0 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 8.0-11.0 0.50
CF3M+CF3MA J9280 0.03 1.5 1.50 0.040 0.040 17.0-21.0 9.0-13.0 2.0-3.0
CF8M J9290 0.08 1.5 1.50 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 9.0-12.0 2.0-3.0
CF3MN J92804 0.03 1.5 1.50 0.040 0.040 17.0-21.0 9.0-13.0 2.0-3.0 0.10-.20
CF8C J92710 0.08 1.5 2.0 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 9.0-12.0 0.50 ( 1 )
CF10 J92950 0.04-0.10 1.5 2.0 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 8.0-11.0 0.50
CF10M J92901 0.04-0.10 1.5 1.50 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 9.0-12.0 2.0-3.0
CH8 J9340 0.08 1.5 1.50 0.040 0.040 22.0-26.0 12.-15.0 0.50
CH10 J93401 0.04-0.10 1.5 2.0 0.040 0.040 22.0-26.0 12.-15.0 0.50
CH20 J93402 0.04-0.20 1.5 2.0 0.040 0.040 22.0-26.0 12.0-15.0 0.50
CK20 J94202 0.04-0.20 1.5 1.75 0.040 0.040 23.0-27.0 19.0-22.0 0.50
HK30 J94203 0.25-0.35 1.5 1.75 0.040 0.040 23.0-27.0 19.0-22.0 0.50
HK40 J94204 0.35-0.45 1.5 1.75 0.040 0.040 23.0-27.0 19.0-22.0 0.50
HT30 N08030 0.25-0.35 2.0 2.50 0.040 0.040 13.0-17.0 33.0-37.0 0.50
CF10MC   0.10 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 15.0-18.0 13.0-16.0 1.7-2.25 ( 2 )
CN7M N0807 0.07 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 19.0-22.0 27.5-30.5 2.0-3.0 3.0-4.0
CN3MN J94651 0.03 2.0 1.0 0.010 0.040 20.0-22.0 23.5-25.5 6.0-.0 0.18-.26 0.75
CE8MN   0.08 1.0 1.50 0.040 0.040 22.5-25.5 8.0-11.0 3.0-.5 0.10-.30
CG-6MMN J93790 0.06 4.0-6.0 1.0 0.030 0.040 20.5-23.5 11.5-13.5 1.50-3.0 0.10-.30 0.10-.30 0.20-.40
CG8M J9300 0.08 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 9.0-13.0 3.0-4.0
CF10SMnN J92972 0.10 7.0-9.0 3.50-.50 0.030 0.060 16.0-18.0 8.0-9.0 0.08-.18
CT15C N08151 0.05-0.15 0.15-.50 0.50-.50 0.030 0.030 19.0-21.0 31.0-.0 0.50-.50
CK-3MCuN J93254 0.025 1.20 1.0 0.010 0.045 19.5-20.5 17.5-19.5 6.0-7.0 0.18-.24 0.50-1.0
CE20N J92802 0.20 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 23.0-26.0 8.0-.0 0.50 0.08-.20
CG3M J92999 0.03 1.50 1.50 0.040 0.040 18.0-21.0 9.0-.0 3.0-4.0

Notes:

  1. Grade CF8C shall have a Niobium content 8 times above the Carbon but not over 1.00%.
  2. Grade CF10MC shall have a Niobium content 10 times above the Carbon but not over 1.20%.

 

ASTM A216, ASTM A351 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Material Code and Description Minimum Steel Mechanical Properties Modulus Approximate
MATERIAL GROUP ASTM CAST GRADE  Tensile strength (psi) Yield strength (psi min) Elongation at 2 inches Reduction of Area (%)    
Carbon Steel ASTM A216 Grade WCB 70,000 36,000 22 35 27.9 137-1 87
Carbon Steel ASTM A352 Grade LCB 65,000 35,000 24 35 27.9 137-1 87
Chrome Moly Steel ASTM A217 Grade C5 90,000 60,000 18 35 27.4 241 Max.
Carbon Moly Steel ASTM A217 Grad e WC1 65,000 35,000 24 35 29.9 215 Max.
Chrome Moly Steel ASTM A217 Grade WC6 70,000 40,000 20 35 29.9 215 Max.
Chrome Moly Steel ASTM A217 Grade WC9 70,000 40,000 20 35 29.9 241 Max.
3 1/2% Nickel Steel ASTM A352 Grade LC3 65,000 40,000 24 35 27.9 137
Chrome Moly Steel ASTM A217 Grade C12 90,000 60,000 18 35 27.4 180-240
Stainless Steel Type 304 ASTM A351 Grade CF-8 65,000 28,000 35 28 140
Stainless Steel Type 316 ASTM A351 Grade CF-8M 70,000 30,000 30 28.3 156-170
Cast Iron ASTM A126 Class B 31,000 160-220
Cast Iron ASTM A126 Class C 41,000 160-220
Ductile Iron ASTM A395 Type 60-45-15 60,000 45,000 15 23-26 143-207
Ductle Ni-Resist Iron (500 KG Load) ASTM A439 Type D-2B 58,000 30,000 7 148-211
Standard Valve Bronze ASTM B62 30,000 14,000 20 17 13.5 55-65*
Tin Bronze ASTM B143 Alloy 1A 40,000 18,000 20 20 15 75-85*
Manganese Bronze ASTM B147 Alloy 8A 65,000 25,000 20 20 15.4 98*
Aluminum Bronze ASTM B148 Alloy 9C 75,000 30,000 12 min. 12 17 150
Mondel Alloy 411 (Weldable Grade) 65,000 32,500 25 23 120-170
Nickel Moly Alloy B ASTM A494 (Hastelloy B) 72,000 46,000 6
Nickel Moly Chrome Alloy C ASTM A494 (Hastelloy C) 72,000 46,000 4
Cobalt-base Alloy No. 6 Stellite No. 6 121,000 64,000 01.feb 30.4
Aluminum Bar ASTM B211 Alloy 20911-T3 44,000 36,000 15 10.2 95
Yellow Brass Bar ASTM B16 1/2 Hard 45,000 15,000 7 50 14
Naval Brass Bar ASTM B21 Alloy 464 60,000 27,000 22 55
Leaded Steel Bar AISI 12L 14 79,000 71,000 16 52 163
Carbon Steel Bar ASTM A108 Grade 1018 69,000 48,000 38 62 143
AISI 4140 Chrome Moly Steel (Suitable for ASTM A193 Grade B7 bolt material) 135,000 115,000 22 63 29.9 255
Stainless Steel Type 302 ASTM A276 Type 302 85,000 35,000 60 70 28 150
Stainless Steel Type 304 ASTM A276 Type 304 85,000 35,000 60 70 149
Stainless Steel Type 316 ASTM A276 Type 316 80,000 30,000 60 70 28 149
Stainless Steel Type 316L ASTM A276 Type 316L 81,000 34,000 55 146
Stainless Steel Type 410 ASTM A276 Type 410 75,000 40,000 35 70 29 155
Stainless Steel Type 17-4PH ASTM A461 Grade 630 135,000 105,000 16 50 29 275-345
Nickel Copper Alloy Bar Alloy K500 (K Monel) 100,000 70,000 35 26 175-260
Nickel Moly Alloy B Bar ASTM B335 (Hastelloy B) 100,000 46,000 30
Nickel Moly Alloy C Bar ASTM B336 (Hastelloy C) 100,000 46,000 20

 

CAST VALVE MATERIAL SELECTION

The table shows the most common materials for cast valves and their recommended service:

MATERIAL GROUP MATERIAL GRADE RECOMMENDED SERVICE
High-temperature Carbon Steel ASTM A216 Grade WCB Non-corrosive fluids as water, oil, and gases at temperatures range -20°F (-30°C) and +800°F (+425°C)
Low-temperature Carbon Steel ASTM A352 Grade LCB Low temperature to -50°F (-46°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
Low-temperature Carbon Steel ASTM A352 Grade LC1 Low temperature to -75°F (-59°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
Low-temperature Carbon Steel ASTM A352 Grade LC2 Low temperature to -100°F (-73°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
3.1/2% Nickel Steel ASTM A352 Grade LC3 Low temperature to -150°F (-101°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
1.1/4% Chrome 1/2% Moly Steel ASTM A217 Grade WC6 Non-corrosive fluids as water, oil, and gases at temperatures range -20°F (-30°C) and +1100°F (+593°C).
2.1/4% Chrome ASTM A217 Grade C9 Non-corrosive fluids as water, oil and gases at temperatures range -20°F (-30°C) and +1100°F (+593°C).
5% Chrome 1/2% Moly ASTM A217 Grade C5 Mild corrosive or erosive applications and non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+649°C).

9%Chrome

1% Moly

ASTM A217 Grade C12 Mild corrosive or erosive applications and non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+649°C).
12% Chrome Steel ASTM A487 Grade CA6NM Corrosive application at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +900°F (+482°C).
12% Chrome ASTM A217 Grade CA15 Corrosive application at temperatures up to +1300°F (+704°C)
Stainless steel 316 ASTM A351 Grade CF8M Corrosive or either extremely low or high-temperature non-corrosive services between -450°F (-268°C) and +1200°F (+649°C). Above +800°F (+425°C) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.
Stainless steel 347 ASTM 351 Grade CF8C Mainly for high temperature, corrosive applications between -450°F (-268°C) and +1200°F (+649°C). Above +1000°F (+540°C) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.
Stainless steel 304 ASTM A351 Grade CF8 Corrosive or extremely high temperatures non-corrosive services between -450°F (-268°C) and +1200°F (+649°C). Above +800°F (+425°C) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.
Stainless steel 304L ASTM A351 Grade CF3 Corrosive or non-corrosive services to +800F (+425°C).
Stainless steel 316L ASTM A351 Grade CF3M Corrosive or non-corrosive services to +800F (+425°C).
Alloy-20 ASTM A351 Grade CN7M Good resistance to hot sulfuric acid to +800F (+425°C).
Monel ASTM 743 Grade M3-35-1 Weldable grade. Good resistance to corrosion by all common organic acids and salt water. Also highly resistant to most alkaline solutions to +750°F (+400°C).
Hastelloy B ASTM A743 Grade N-12M Well suited for handling hydrofluoric acid at all concentrations and temperatures. Good resistance to sulphuric and phosphoric acids to +1200°F (+649°C).
Hastelloy C ASTM A743 Grade CW-12M Good resistance to span oxidation conditions. Good properties at high temperatures. Good resistance to sulphuric and phosphoric acids to +1200°F (+649°C).
Inconel ASTM A743 Grade CY-40 Very good for high-temperature service. Good resistance to spangly corrosive media and atmosphere to +800°F (+425°C).
Bronze ASTM B62 Water, oil or gas: up to 400°F. Excellent for brine and seawater service.