A recurring question is: how to select piping materials and match? The piping material selection chart maps how to mate the materials of different piping products, such as pipes, valves, fittings, flanges, and stud bolts.

 

The table shows, for example, that an A106 Gr. A pipe matches with ASTM A234 buttweld fitting, with an ASTM A105 forged fitting (or valve), with an A216 WCB cast valve and with ASTM A193 B7 stud bolts. The same logic applies to any other ASTM material grades.

Of course, the final decision about piping materials has to be taken by the design engineer and the given indications shall be taken with due care.

PIPING MATERIALS PIPES BW FITTINGS FORGINGS* CAST VALVES STUD BOLTS
Carbon Steel A106 Gr A A234 Gr WPA A105 A216 Gr WCB A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
A106 Gr B A234 Gr WPB A105 A216 Gr WCB
A106 Gr C A234 Gr WPC A105 A216 Gr WCB
Carbon Steel
Alloy High-Temp
A335 Gr P1 A234 Gr WP1 A182 Gr F1 A217 Gr WC1 A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
A335 Gr P11 A234 Gr WP11 A182 Gr F11 A217 Gr WC6
A335 Gr P12 A234 Gr WP12 A182 Gr F12 A217 Gr WC6
A335 Gr P22 A234 Gr WP22 A182 Gr F22 A217 Gr WC9
A335 Gr P5 A234 Gr WP5 A182 Gr F5 A217 Gr C5
A335 Gr P9 A234 Gr WP9 A182 Gr F9 A217 Gr C12
A 335 Gr P91 A234 Gr WP91 A182 Fr F91
Carbon Steel
Alloy Low-Temp
A333 Gr 6 A420 Gr WPL6 A350 Gr LF2 A352 Gr LCB A320 Gr L7
A194 Gr 7
A333 Gr 3 A420 Gr WPL3 A350 Gr LF3 A352 Gr LC3
Austenitic
Stainless Steel
A312 Gr TP304 A403 Gr WP304 A182 Gr F304 A182 Gr F304 A193 Gr B8
A194 Gr 8
A312 Gr TP316 A403 Gr WP316 A182 Gr F316 A182 Gr F316
A312 Gr TP321 A403 Gr WP321 A182 Gr F321 A182 Gr F321
A312 Gr TP347 A403 Gr WP347 A182 Gr F347 A182 Gr F347
* Forgings include: forged fittings, flanges, forged valves, some gaskets

 

MOST COMMON PIPING MATERIALS

 

PIPE MATERIALS

  • A106: Specification for carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service. For more info about A106 pipes, read here
  • A335: Specification for seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe for high-temperature service. For more info about chrome-alloy pipes, read here
  • A333: Specification for wall seamless and welded carbon and alloy steel pipe intended for use at low temperatures. For more info about LTCS pipes, read here
  • A312: Standard specification for seamless, straight-seam welded, and cold worked welded austenitic stainless steel pipe intended for high-temperature and general corrosive service. For more information about stainless steel pipes, read here.

VALVE MATERIALS

  • A216: Specification for carbon steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings, or other pressure-containing parts for high-temperature service and of the quality suitable for assembly with other castings or wrought steel parts by fusion welding. For more information about carbon steel valves, read here
  • A217: Specification for steel castings, martensitic stainless steel and alloys steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-containing parts intended primarily for high-temperature and corrosive service.
  • A352: Specification for steel castings for Valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-containing parts intended primarily for low-temperature service.
  • A182: This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and Valves and parts for high-temperature service. Find more information about forged body valves here.

FLANGE MATERIALS

  • A105: Specification for standards for forged carbon steel piping components, that is, flanges, fittings, Valves, and similar parts, for use in pressure systems at ambient and higher-temperature service conditions. To learn more about forged flanges materials, read this article
  • A182: This specification covers forged or rolled alloy and stainless steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and Valves and parts for high-temperature service.
  • A350: Specification for several grades of carbon and low alloy steel forged or ring-rolled flanges, forged fittings and Valves for low-temperature service.

PIPE FITTINGS MATERIALS

  • A234: Specification for wrought carbon steel and alloy steel fittings of seamless and welded construction.
  • A420: Standard specification for piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for low-temperature service.
  • A403: Standard specification for wrought austenitic stainless steel piping fittings.

 

STUD BOLT MATERIALS

  • A193: Standard specification for alloy and stainless steel bolting material for pressure vessels, Valves, flanges, and fittings for high temperature or high pressure service, or other special purpose applications.
  • A320: Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service.
  • A194: Standard specification for nuts in different materials

To learn more about bolting sets materials, please consult this article