MATERIAL GRADES FOR OIL & GAS PIPES


In this article, we show the main pipe materials for oil and gas, grouped by pipe type (seamless or welded) and material group (carbon, alloy, stainless steel and high nickel alloy pipes) and summarize the key elements to consider to select the correct grade for a pipe depending on process conditions.


 

ASTM CARBON AND ALLOY STEEL PIPE MATERIALS

Carbon steel pipe stack

SEAMLESS PIPES

  • ASTM A 53 Gr. A/B, ASTM 106 Gr. A/B/C: seamless pipes for high-temperature service
  • ASTM A333 Gr. 1-11: pipes for low-temperature service
  • API 5L Gr. A/B/X42/X46/X52/X60/X65/X80/X100: seamless oil and gas line pipes (standard and high-yield)
  • ASTM A335 Gr. P1-P122: chrome-moly pipes for high temperature/pressure (power generation mainly)
  • API 5CT: seamless casing and tubing OCTG pipes for upstream oil and gas

WELDED PIPES

  • ASTM A 53 Gr. A/B: seamless pipes for high-temperature service
  • ASTM A333 Gr. 1-11: pipes for low-temperature service
  • API 5L Gr. A/B/X42/X46/X52/X60/X65/X80/X100: welded oil and gas line pipes (standard and high-yield)
  • ASTM A671/A672/A691: chrome-moly pipes for high temperature/pressure (power generation mainly)
  • API 5CT: seamless casing and tubing OCTG pipes for upstream oil and gas

 

ASTM A53-B/A106-B/API 5L-B (High-Temp. Carbon Steel)

  • Better than cast iron as has higher strength
  • Used for higher temperatures (up to 800° F or 427° C)
  • Most process services including steam piping

ASTM A53 Galvanized Carbon Steel

  • Use limited to about 200° F or 93° C for basic utilities like water, air, nitrogen
  • Normally piping connections are screwed to avoid damage to galvanizing due to welding

ASTM A333 (Low-Temperature Carbon Steel)

  • Used for low temp services like chilled brine, chlorine liquid/gas, propylene, etc. (Bet -45°C to 485°C)
  • Has more of Carbon and no alloying elements like Cr and Mo and contains Nickel which improves low temp properties
  • Impact properties/values at low temp is better than in CS (Charpy N Notch test)
  • Refer to ASTM 01.01 for impact test requirement for low temp/cryogenic services

Lined Piping

  • Normally metallic, glass, non-metallic, cement lined
  • Used for highly corrosive services like acids, caustic, process limited services, etc.
  • CS Cement lined pipe normally used in seawater applications

ASTM A335 (ALLOY STEEL)

  • Used for high temp applications in CS base like process services, superheated steam, reformer gases, etc. above 400° C design temp (ASTM A335 Gr P1, 5, 11, 22, etc.)
  • C-1/2Mo steel can be used bet -29°C up to 454°C design temp
  • Cr-1/2Mo steels can be used bet -29°C and up to 550 to 600°C
  • PWHT or stress relieving is a must after welding


ASTM STAINLESS AND NICKEL-ALLOY STEEL PIPE MATERIALS

SEAMLESS PIPES

  • ASTM A312 stainless steel pipe (Gr. TP304/TP316/TP321/TP347, etc)
  • ASTM A790 duplex pipe / super duplex pipes
  • ASTM B163/B165/B167/B444 (Nickel 200, Monel, Inconel, i.e. nickel-alloy seamless pipes)
  • ASTM B407/B423/B444 (Incoloy, Inconel seamless pipes)
  • ASTM B622 (Hastelloy seamless pipes)
  • ASTM B690 (AL-6XN seamless pipes)
  • ASTM B729 (Alloy 20 seamless pipes)
  • ASTM B658/B861 (seamless pipes in Zirconium and, Titanium)

WELDED PIPES

  • ASTM A312 stainless steel pipe (Gr. TP304/TP316/TP321/TP347, etc)
  • ASTM A358 EFW stainless steel pipe (Gr. TP304/TP316/TP321/TP347, etc)
  • ASTM A790/A928 (welded duplex, super duplex pipes)
  • ASTM B464 (welded alloy 20 pipes)
  • ASTM B514/B517/B705 (Incoloy, Inconel welded pipes)
  • ASTM B619 (Hastelloy welded pipes)
  • ASTM B725 (Monel welded pipes)

ASTM A312 (AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL CR-MO-NI)

  • Used for high temp and process critical services and for cryogenic applications
  • Selection governed by the process for specific service needs
  • ASTM A312 Gr TP 304 and 316 are normally used SS grades for pipes
  • Presence of 2% Mo in SS316 gives better overall corrosion resistance properties than SS304
  • SS316 has higher resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments
  • Grade L series has lower C (0.035%) which improves its use for higher temp up to 1100°F (600°C), has higher resistance to IGC and better weldability, Better mechanical strength at elevated temps and good high temp oxidation resistance up to 925°C.
  • Grade H – Controlled C between .04 to 0.1% & lower Ni provides improved high temp strength above 815° C.
  • Common applications of SS304 are food, steel utensils, beverages, dairy industry, etc.
  • Common applications of SS316 are food, pharma, marine, medical implant steel, etc.
  • Grade 317 – use dictated by licensor/process
  • Grades 321 and 347 are metallurgically very stable in high temp applications because of the addition of Columbium and/or Tungsten
  • Impact testing is not required if C < 0.1%
  • Refer to ASTM 01.01 for impact test requirement for low temp/cryogenic services

EUROPEAN PIPE MATERIALS

Flag European Union

 SEAMLESS PIPES (EN 10220)

  • EN 10208 Gr. 1/2: line pipes for oil and gas transmission
  • EN 10210/EN 10297
  • EN 10216 Gr. 1-5
  • EN 10255 threaded gas pipes

 WELDED PIPES (EN 10220)

  • EN 10217 Gr. 1/2/3
  • EN 10219 Gr. 1/2
  • EN 10255 threaded gas pipes

 

 EUROPEAN VS AMERICAN PIPE STANDARDS COMPARISON

Piping engineers shall select the pipe material grade based on the following process and economic parameters:

  • pressure
  • temperature
  • fluid type and associated corrosion rates
  • the dimension of the pipeline
  • pipeline life expectancy
  • project budget

The table shows the equivalences among American and European material grades for pipes:

Pipe Materials Comparison Chart:
ASTM vs. Werkstoff & DIN vs. EN
Werkstoff /DIN pipe material specs EN pipe material specs ASTM pipe material specs
Carbon Steel Pipes, Non-Alloy
1.0254   St 37.0 P235TR1 A 53 Grade A
1.0570   St 52-3 S355J2H (1.0576)
1.0305   St 35.8/I P235GH TC1 (1.0345) A 106 Grade A
1.0305   St 35.8/III P235GH TC2 (1.0345)
1.0405   St 45.8/I P265GH TC1 (1.0425) A 106 Grade B
1.0405   St 45.8/III P265GH TC2 (1.0425)
Alloy Steel Pipes
1.5415   15 Mo 3 16Mo3 A 335 Grade P1
1.7335   13 CrMo 4 4 13CrMo4-5 A 335 Grade P11, P12
1.7380   10 CrMo 9 10 10CrMo9-10 A 335 Grade P22
1.7362   12 CrMo 19 5 X11CrMo5 A 335 Grade P5
– – A 335 Grade P9
1.4903  – X10CrMoVNb9-1 A 335 Grade P91
Low Temperature Carbon Steel Pipes
1.5637   10 Ni 14 A 333 Grade 3
1.0356   TTSt 35 N P215NL (1.0451) A 333 Grade 1
1.0356   TTSt 35 V P255QL (1.0452)
– – A 333 Grade 6
Fine-Grain Steel Pipes
– –
1.0486   StE 285 API 5L Grade X42
1.0562   StE 355 P355N API 5L Grade X52
1.8902   StE 420 P420N API 5L Grade X60
1.8905   StE 460 P460N API 5L Grade X70
High Yield Steel Pipes
1.0457   StE 240.7 L245NB API 5L Grade B
1.0484   StE 290.7 L290NB API 5L Grade X42
1.0582   StE 360.7 L360NB API 5L Grade X52
1.8972   StE 415.7 L415NB API 5L Grade X60
– –
Stainless Steel Pipes
1.4541   X 6 CrNiTi 18 10 X6CrNiTi18-10 A 312 Grade TP321
1.4571   X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 A 312 Grade TP316Ti
1.4301   X 5 CrNi 18 10 X5CrNi18-10 A 312 Grade TP304
1.4306   X 2 CrNi 19 11 X2CrNi19-11 A 312 Grade TP304L
1.4307  – X2CrNi18-9 A 312 Grade TP304L
1.4401   X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 A 312 Grade TP316
1.4404   X 2 CrNiMo 17 13 2 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 A 312 Grade TP316L
1.4462   X 2 CrNiMoN 22 5 3 X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 UNS S 31803 (Duplex)
1.4529   X 1 NiCrMoCuN 25 20 6 X1NiCrMoCuN25-20-7 UNS N 08926
1.4539   X 1 NiCrMoCuN 25 20 5 X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 UNS N 08904 (904L)
1.4547  – X1CrNiMoCuN20-18-7 UNS S 31254