WHAT ARE FORGED FITTINGS?
Forged fittings are used to connect, branch, blind or route small diameter piping systems (generally, below 2 inches). Contrary to butt weld fittings, which are manufactured from pipes and plates, forged fittings are produced by forging and machining steel. Forged fittings are available in multiple shapes, sizes (bore sizes and pressure ratings) and forged material grades (the most common are ASTM A105, ASTM A350 LF1/2/3/6 for low-temperatures, ASTM 182 for corrosive, high-temperature applications). Forged fittings are connected to pipes by socket weld or threaded connections. ASME B16.11 is the reference specification.
Forged fittings are manufactured according to the ASME B16.11, MSS SP 75, MSS SP 83, MSS SP 95 specifications to fit ASME B36.10 carbon and alloy steel pipes and ASME B36.19 stainless steel and nickel alloy pipes.
FORGED FITTINGS TYPES
FORGED ELBOW 45, 90 DEGREES
Forged elbows are used to change the direction of the piping system by 45 or 90 degrees. Forged elbows are manufactured according to ASME B16.11 in various material grades, either with socket weld or threaded pipe connections. A special type is the so-called “street elbow”.
Forged elbows 45 and 90 degrees, street elbow.
EQUAL AND REDUCING FORGED TEE
Forged tees are used to branch a pipe at 90 degrees.
A forged equal tee features identical bore size for the header and the branched pipe; a reducing tee has two different bore sizes (larger for the run pipe and smaller for the branch pipe).
Both types of forged tees are available with socket weld or threaded connections. The dimensions of forged tees are set by the MSS SP 75 and the ASME B16.11 specifications.
Forged laterals, featuring a Y shape, are used to branch the piping system in two directions, that have a 30-degree angle (or different, according to the piping specifications).
FORGED PIPE PLUG
Forged plugs are available with round, squared or hexagonal head and are used to blind pipes.
Hexagonal bushings are manufactured in accordance with ASME B16.11 and are used to join two threaded items of a different size
FULL AND HALF COUPLING
Couplings are forged fittings manufactured in accordance with ASME B16.11 and are used to join pipes. They are available in half or full size and with socket weld or threaded connections (or a combination of the two for special piping applications).
FORGED REDUCER AND REDUCER INSERT
Reducers are available in two main types, called 1 and 2. They are used to connect pipes and reduce the bore size.
Unions are available in the male to female, female to female types, lug nut, and Rockwood design. Unions comply with the MSS SP 83 standard.
SOCKET WELD FITTINGS
A socket weld fitting (left side) and a threaded fitting (right side)
Socket weld fittings are used for applications where a strong and long-lasting connection is required.
These type of pipe fittings feature a socket where the connecting pipe has to be fitted and welded (with a fillet-type seal weld).
Socket weld connections are very reliable but are time-consuming to install, due to the necessary welding operations.
Socket weld fittings are available in sizes from 1/8 to 4 inches and in pressure ratings from classes 2000 to 9000.
The typical applications for socket weld fittings are:
- Explosive fluids and gases
- Acids and toxic fluids
- Long service / durable installations
Fillet weld vs. Butt Weld: a butt welding connection fills the gaps between two devices, that are beveled at 30 degrees.
THREADED PIPE FITTINGS
Threaded pipe fittings are used for non-critical pipeworks such as water distribution, fire protection and cooling systems (low-pressure applications not subject to vibration, elongation and bending forces).
Threaded pipe fittings are not suited for fluids with variable temperatures, as sudden changes may crack the connection.
Threaded pipe fittings are available in gray cast iron, malleable iron, carbon steel ASTM A105, stainless steel A182 F304/F316 and in sizes from 1/8 inch to 4 inches with pressure ratings between 2000 and 6000. Although different types of threads are available, the most common type is the NPT (national pipe thread).
FORGED FITTINGS MATERIALS
ASTM A105 CARBON STEEL FORGED FITTINGS
|A105 Forged Fittings Materials, Chemical Composition %||A105 Forged Fittings, Mechanical Properties|
|Material Grade||Grade or Class||C||Si||Mn||S||P||Cu||Ni||Cr||Mo||V||Cb/Nb||Tensile Strength min, Ksi||Yield Point
Ksi @ 0.2%
|Elongation in 2 in, %|
ASTM A182 STAINLESS STEEL FORGED FITTINGS
|ASTM A182 Forged Fittings Materials in %|
|F316Ti||0.08||2.0||0.045||0.030||1.0||10.0-14.0||16.0-18.0||2.0-3.0||(3)||N 0.10 max|
- Grades F304, F304L, F316, and F316L shall have a maximum Nitrogen of 0.10%.
- Grades F304N, F316N, F304LN, and F316LN shall have a Nitrogen of 0.10 to 0.16%.
- Grade F316Ti shall have a Titanium content five times above the Carbon plus Nitrogen and not more than 0.70%.
- Grade F321 shall have a Titanium content five times above the Carbon and not more than 0.70%.
- Grade F321H shall have a Titanium content four times above the Carbon and not more than 0.70%.
- Grades F347 and F348 shall have a Niobium content ten times above the Carbon and not more than 1.10%.
- Grades F347H and F348H shall have a Niobium content above than eight times the Carbon and not more than 1.10%.
FORGED FITTINGS DIMENSIONS ASME B16.11
Dimensions and weights of forged fittings per ASME/ANSI B16.11 can be downloaded here.
FORGED FITTINGS MANUFACTURERS
- Anvil/JB Smith
- Bonney Forge
- Del Corte
- General Plug and Manufacturing
- Interfit Vallourec
- Lame Fittings
- Jefferson Union
- Mega Mex
- Mueller Industries
- Penn Machine
FORGED FITTINGS PRICES
Looking for the price of forged fittings? Click on the image and check our online forged fittings price estimation tool!
The tool estimates the price for forged pipe fittings manufactured in Europe and Asia.
Even if our price estimates are reliable, prices shall always be double checked with forged fittings manufacturers and distributors.
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