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Piping Materials Match Chart (ASTM)

The piping material chart shows the matching ASTM materials for pipes, valves, fittings, flanges and stud bolts. PIPING MATERIALS MATCH CHART The piping ASTM materials match chart shows, for example, that an A106 Gr. A pipe matches with ASTM A234 buttweld fitting, with an ASTM A105 forged fitting, flange or valve, with an A216 WCB cast… read more »

EN 10220, EN 1127 Pipe Size Charts

The EN 10220 and EN 1127 specifications cover the dimensions and tolerances of European pipes, carbon/alloy steel, and stainless steel respectively. While EN 10220 and 1127 are used in Europe, ASME B36.10 and ASME B36.19 cover the dimensions and tolerances of American standard pipes. EN 10220 PIPE SPECIFICATION The BS EN 10220 specification covers the dimensions… read more »

Pipe Sizes: NPS, Schedule, Length, End Types

The key dimensional parameters of steel pipes explained: “NPS”, “Schedule”, “Length” . PIPE DIAMETER AND WALL THICKNESS The two key steel pipe sizes are the nominal pipe size (NPS) and wall thickness (WT): NPS means “nominal pipe size”, which is the internal flow capacity of the pipe (pipe bore capacity). The comparable European term for “NPS”… read more »

ASME B16.34 Pressure/Temperature Rating

The ASME B16.34 specification covers pressure and temperature ratings for forgings, castings, plate, bar, and tubular products. The ASME B16.34 charts show the max allowed pressure for a material depending on the product rating and the process temperature (the higher the temperature, the lower the pressure at a given rating).    GROUP 1: CARBON AND ALLOY… read more »

What are Incoterms? (ExW, FOB, CFR, CPT,…)

Incoterms 2010 (FCA, DAP, EX WORKS, CIF, FOB, CFR, DAT, etc.) define, in a purchase contract, the responsibilities of the buyer and the supplier in the transaction: transfer of ownership of the goods, payment of transportation costs and insurance, loading and unloading risks. Incoterms have been issued by the International Chamber of Commerce in 2010… read more »

Key Shipping Documents for Exporters

An overview of the common documents in the export/import business, divided by type:  financial (invoices, insurance policy), transportation (B/L, AWL, CMR), quality assurance (inspection reports) documents. Exporters shall be familiar with the documents that have to prepared to export the goods to a foreign location. In this article, we review the most common ones and their… read more »

Difference Pipe vs. Tube Explained

A recurring question is “what is the basic difference between pipe and tube”? The short answer is: A PIPE is a round tubular to distribute fluids and gases, designated by a nominal pipe size (NPS or DN) that represents a rough indication of the pipe conveyance capacity; a TUBE is a round, rectangular, squared or… read more »

Pipes Manufacturers and Stockists

This article shows a comprehensive list of the mills where to buy seamless and welded steel pipes: pipe manufacturers in Europe, USA, India, China, and Japan.   COUNTRY PIPE MANUFACTURER (MILL) Austria Voest Alpine Tubulars Austria Schoeller Bleckmann Edelstahlrohr China Hengyang Valin Steel Tubes China Baosteel China TPCO Czech Republic TRINECKE ZELEZARNY (Moravia Steel Group) Czech… read more »

Pipe Color by Fluid Type

Color codes are, in some cases, applied on pipes and other piping materials (such as pipe fittings, flanges, and valves) to facilitate the identification, in the storage warehouse or on the field during project execution, of components manufactured in different materials. PFI ES-22 SPECIFICATION FOR PIPE COLOR CODING The table shows the pipe color coding… read more »

Engineering Terms and Abbreviations

The engineering dictionary collects the most used terms, abbreviations, and definitions used in technical and commercial documentation related to project plant construction, materials and project management. A AGA American Gas Association AISI: American Iron & Steel Institute ANSI: American National Standards Institute — Formerly ASA API American Petroleum Institute ASA: American Standard Institute — Now known as ANSI… read more »

Containers and Pallets: Sizes and Types

Goods can be shipped on wooden, plastic or metallic pallets or containers (20, 40 feet, side or top entry). The article reviews gross and net weights, types and carrying capacity of pallets and containers CONTAINERS 20′ STANDARD CONTAINER INSIDE LENGTH: 5.895 m INSIDE WIDTH: 2.350 m INSIDE HEIGHT: 2.392 m DOOR WIDTH: 2.340 m DOOR HEIGHT: 2.292 m CAPACITY: 33 m3… read more »

6 Types of Payment Terms for Exporters

The most common payment terms for contracts are “open account” (the seller delivers without any guarantee, and expects the payment at a later stage), “documentary collections” (the exchange of the documents representative of the goods and the payment are managed via banks), “letters of credit”, “cash in advance”.  CASH IN ADVANCE (CA) Cash in advance… read more »

Contract Risks: a Checklist for Exporters

Purchase contracts may be filled with risks. In this article, we provide a useful checklist to make sure all major contract risk areas are identified and mitigated with proper actions. Contract risks may come from purchase orders and the attached (or referenced)  General Terms and Conditions of Purchase. A useful read for suppliers dealing with… read more »

5 Practical Ways to Finance Export Sales

In this article, we list the 5 basic ways to finance export sales: factoring, credit forfaiting, banker’s acceptance, EXIM banks. FACTORING Factoring is used by exporters to discount sales invoices and cash in the credit before the due date. With such transaction, the seller/exporter sells the credit to a specialized financial intermediary (generally, a bank or… read more »

CE Marking for Steel Products

CE marking means “Conformité Européenne” and consists in a logo with the two letters “C” and “E”.  A manufacturer stamps a CE logo on its products to confirm that they comply with the applicable EU safety regulations (protection of human life and of the environment). CE marks may be double-checked by a third party or… read more »

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