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Technical Library > FLANGES > FLANGES MATERIALS > Materials for Flanges
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MATERIALS FOR FLANGES


Steel flanges are available various (forged) material grades such as low-temperature and high-temperature carbon steel, austenitic/martensitic/ferritic/duplex stainless steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, cupronickel, etc. For specific services, flanges may be internally lined with protective materials (as pipes and fittings) or painted externally. In this article, we give an overview of the most common materials for flanges, their recommended service, and mechanical properties.


 

FORGED FLANGES MATERIALS

Flanges

CARBON STEEL

  • ASTM A105/A266 Gr. 2 (high-temperature carbon steel)
  • ASTM A350 LF1, LF3 and LF6 (low-temperature carbon steel)
  • ASTM A694 Gr. F42/F52/F56/F60/F65 (high yield forged carbon steels for API 5L line pipes)

ALLOY STEEL

ASTM A182 Gr. F1/F2/F5/F9/F11 Cl. 2/F12 Cl. 2/F22 Cl. 3/F91 (alloy steel flanges to match chrome-moly pipes and piping works)

STAINLESS AND DUPLEX / SUPER DUPLEX STEEL

  • ASTM A182 F304/304L, F316/316L, F321, F347, F348 (stainless steel flanges), 904/904L
  • ASTM A182 F51 (duplex flanges) and ASTM A182 F53/F55 (super duplex)

NICKEL-ALLOYS

  • ASTM B166 UNS NO6600 (Inconel 600)
  • ASTM B564 UNS N06625 (Inconel 625)
  • ASTM B425 UNS-NO8800 (Incoloy 800)
  • ASTM B564 UNS N08825 (Incoloy 825)
  • ASTM B160 UNS N0200 (Nickel 200)
  • ASTM B564 UNS N04400 (Monel 400)
  • ASTM B564 UNS N10276 (Hastelloy C-276)

TITANIUM

ASTM B381 Gr. 2


CARBON STEEL FLANGES ASTM A105/A350

ASTM A105 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBON STEEL)

Chemical Composition of ASTM A105 (in %)
Element C Mn P S Si Cu Ni Cr Mo V
0.35 max 0.60-1.05 0.035 max 0.040
max
0.10-0.35 0.40
max (1)
0.40
max (1)
0.30
max (1-2)
0.12
max (1-2)
0.08
max

Notes:

  1. The total of Cu, Ni, Niobium, Moly, and Vanadium shall not exceed 1.00%.
  2. The sum of Niobium and Molybdenum shall not exceed 0.32%.

ASTM A105 PRESSURE RATING

(Max working pressure of carbon steel / low alloy steel flanges ASTM A105 / ASTM A350 – by Class, in bar)

TEMP. C 150# 300# 400# 600# 900# 1500# 2500#
-29 to 38 19.6 51.1 68.1 102.1 153.2 255.3 425.5
50 19.2 50.1 66.8 100.2 150.4 250.6 417.7
100 17.7 46.6 62.1 93.2 139.8 233 388.3
150 15.8 45.1 60.1 90.2 135.2 225.4 375.6
200 13.8 43.8 58.4 87.6 131.4 219 365
250 12.1 41.9 55.9 83.9 125.8 209.7 349.5
300 10.2 39.8 53.1 79.6 119.5 199.1 331.8
325 9.3 38.7 51.6 77.4 116.1 193.6 322.6
350 8.4 37.6 50.1 75.1 112.7 187.8 313
375 7.4 36.4 48.5 72.7 109.1 181.8 303.1
400 6.5 34.7 46.3 69.4 104.2 173.6 289.3
425 5.5 28.8 38.4 57.5 86.3 143.8 239.7
450 4.6 23 30.7 46 69 115 191.7
475 3.7 17.4 23.2 34.9 52.3 87.2 145.3
500 2.8 11.8 15.7 23.5 35.3 58.8 97.9
538 1.4 5.9 7.9 11.8 17.7 29.5 49.2

ASTM A350 LF1/LF2/LF3 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (LOW TEMPERATURE CARBON STEEL)

ASTM A350 is a low-temperature carbon steel for forged flanges, suited for use down to –20ºF (LF1,) –50ºF (LF2) and –150ºF (LF3.)

ASTM A350 LF1

C% Mn% Si% S% P% Cr% Ni%
0.30 max 0.6/1.35 .15/.30 .040 max .035 max 0.30 max 0.40 max

ASTM A350 LF2

C% Mn% Si% S% P% Cr% Ni%
0.30 max 0.6/1.35 .15/.30 .040 max .035 max 0.30 max 0.40 max

ASTM A350 LF3

C% Mn% Si% S% P% Cr% Ni%
0.20 max 0.90 .20/.35 .040 max .035 max 0.30 max 3.3/3.7

A105/ASTM A350 LF2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Spec ASTM A105 ASTM A350-LF2
Tensile Strength Min, psi 70,000 70,000-95,000
Tensile Strength Min, N/mm² 485 485-655
Yield Strength Min, psi 36,000 36,000
Yield Strength Min, N/mm² 250 250
Elongation (%) 22 22
Reduction of Area (%) 30 30
Hardness, maximum 187 15/12 ft-lbs
CVN at -50℉ 20/16 joules

 


STAINLESS STEEL FLANGES ASTM A182

ASTM A182 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

ASTM A182 Stainless Steel Flanges Materials Composition, %
Grade C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Nb Ti Others
F304(1) 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-11.0 18.0-20.0
F304H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-11.0 18.0-20.0
F304L(1) 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-13.0 18.0-20.0
F304N(2) 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-10.5 18.0-20.0
F304LN(2) 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-10.5 18.0-20.0
F309H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 12.0-15.0 22.0-24.0
F310 0.25 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 19.0-22.0 24.0-26.0
F310H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 19.0-22.0 24.0-26.0
F310MoLN 0.030 2.0 0.030 0.015 0.40 21.0-23.0 24.0-26.0 2.0-3.0 N 0.10-0.16
F316 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 10.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0
F316H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 10.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0
F316L(1) 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 10.0-15.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0
F316N(2) 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 11.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0
F316LN(2) 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 11.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0
F316Ti 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 10.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0 (3) N 0.10 max
F317 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 11.0-15.0 18.0-20.0 3.0-4.0
F317L 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 11.0-15.0 18.0-20.0 3.0-4.0
F321 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-12.0 17.0-19.0 (4)
F321H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-12.0 17.0-19.0 (5)
F347 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-13.0 17.0-20.0 (6)
F347H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-13.0 17.0-20.0 (7)
F348 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-13.0 17.0-20.0 (6) Co 0.20
Ta 0.10
F348H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-13.0 17.0-20.0 (7) Co 0.20
Ta 0.10

Notes:

  1. Grades F304, F304L, F316, and F316L shall have a maximum Nitrogen of 0.10%.
  2. Grades F304N, F316N, F304LN, and F316LN shall have a Nitrogen of 0.10 to 0.16%.
  3. Grade F316Ti shall have a Titanium content five times above the Carbon plus Nitrogen and not more than 0.70%.
  4. Grade F321 shall have a Titanium content five times above the Carbon and not more than 0.70%.
  5. Grade F321H shall have a Titanium content four times above the Carbon and not more than 0.70%.
  6. Grades F347 and F348 shall have a Niobium content ten times above the Carbon and not more than 1.10%.
  7. Grades F347H and F348H shall have a Niobium content above than eight times the Carbon and not more than 1.10%.

ASTM A182 PRESSURE RATING

(Max working pressure of carbon stainless steel flanges ASTM A182 – by Class, in bar)

TEMP. C 150# 300# 400# 600# 900# 1500# 2500#
-29 to 38 15.9 41.4 55.2 82.7 124.1 206.8 344.7
50 15.3 40 53.4 80 120.1 200.1 333.5
100 13.3 34.8 46.4 69.6 104.4 173.9 289.9
150 12 31.4 41.9 62.8 94.2 157 261.6
200 11.2 29.2 38.9 58.3 87.5 145.8 243
250 10.5 27.5 36.6 54.9 82.4 137.3 228.9
300 10 26.1 34.8 52.1 78.2 130.3 217.2
325 9.3 25.5 34 51 76.4 127.4 212.3
350 8.4 25.1 33.4 50.1 75.2 125.4 208.9
375 7.4 24.8 33 49.5 74.3 123.8 206.3
400 6.5 24.3 32.4 48.6 72.9 121.5 202.5
425 5.5 23.9 31.8 47.7 71.6 119.3 198.8
450 4.6 23.4 31.2 46.8 70.2 117.1 195.1


FLANGES MATERIAL SELECTION

The flange material selection depends on the temperature and the pressure of the piping system and the type of fluid to be conveyed. In the tables below, we report the recommended service for common ASTM forged grades.

CARBON/ALLOY STEEL GRADES

MATERIAL MATERIAL GROUP RECOMMENDED SERVICE
A105 Carbon Steel General service such as oil, oil vapor, gas, steam and water at temperatures -20°F to 1000°F (-28°C to 537°C)
A350-LF2 CL1 Low-Temperature Carbon Steel (LTCS) Low-temperature service down to -50°F and not above 650°F (-46°C and not above 343°C)
A182-F11 CL2 1 1/4% Cr, 1/2% Mo Alloy Steel High temperatures service from -20°F to 1100°F to minimize graphitization (-28°C to 593§C)
A182-F22 CL3 2 1/4% Cr, 1% Mo Alloy Steel High-temperature services requiring greater strength than F11 at temperatures from -20°F to 1100°F (-28°C to 593°C)
A182-F5 5% Cr, 1/2% Mo Alloy Steel Corrosive/erosive refinery service requiring resistance at temperatures from -20°F to 1100§F (-28°C to 590°C)
A182-F9 9% Cr, 1% Mo Alloy Steel Fluids with higher Sulphur content to fight oxidation to 1100oF (593°C)

STAINLESS STEEL GRADES

MATERIAL MATERIAL GROUP RECOMMENDED SERVICE
A182-F304 18% Cr, 8% Ni Stainless Steel Corrosive services and atmospheres from -450°F to 1000°F (-268°C to 537°C)
A182-F316 18% Cr, 8% Ni, 2% Mo Stainless Steel High resistance to corrosion from -450°F to 1000°F (-268°C to 537°C).


EN vs. ASTM MATERIALS FOR FLANGES

Flanges Material Grades: Comparison European and American Standards
Material number EN ASTM
Carbon Steel
1.0038 RSt 37-2 S235JR
1.0570 St 52-3 S355J2 (1.0577)
1.0460 C 22.8 P250GH
1.0432 C 21 A 105
1.0352 – P245GH
– –
Alloy Steel
1.5415 15 Mo 3 16Mo3 A 182 Grade F 1
1.7335 13 CrMo 4 4 13CrMo4-5 A 182 Grade F11, F12
1.7380 10 CrMo 9 10 11CrMo9-10 (1.7383) A 182 Grade F22
1.7362 12 CrMo 19 5 A 182 Grade F5
– – A 182 Grade F9
1.4903 – X10CrMoVNb9-1 A 182 Grade F91
LTCS
1.5637 10 Ni 14 12Ni14 A 350 Grade LF3
1.0566 TStE 355 P355QH1 (1.0571) A 350 Grade LF2
– –
– –
High Yield Carbon Steel
– –
1.0486 StE 285 A 694 Grade F42
1.0562 StE 355 P355N A 694 Grade F52
1.8902 StE 420 P420N A 694 Grade F60
1.8905 StE 460 P460N A 694 Grade F70
High yield steels
Stainless Steel
1.4541 X 6 CrNiTi 18 10 X6CrNiTi18-10 A 182 Grade F321
1.4571 X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 A 182 Grade F316Ti
1.4301 X 5 CrNi 18 10 X5CrNi18-10 A 182 Grade F304
1.4306 X 2 CrNi 19 11 A 182 Grade F304L
1.4307 – X2CrNi18-9 A 182 Grade F304L
1.4401 X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 A 182 Grade F316
1.4404 X 2 CrNiMo 17 13 2 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 A 182 Grade F316L
1.4462 X 2 CrNiMoN 22 5 3 X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 A 182 Grade F51 (Duplex)
1.4529 X 1 NiCrMoCuN 25 20 6 X1NiCrMoCuN25-20-7 UNS N 08926
1.4539 X 1 NiCrMoCuN 25 20 5 X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 A 182 Grade F904L
1.4547 – X1CrNiMoCuN20-18-7 UNS S 31254

 


FLANGES MATERIALS MATING TABLE

The table shows mating materials for products of different piping products:

Material Group Pipes Wrought Fittings Flanges Valves Bolting Sets
Carbon Steel A106 Gr A A234 Gr WPA A105 A216 Gr WCB A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
A106 Gr B A234 Gr WPB A105 A216 Gr WCB
A106 Gr C A234 Gr WPC A105 A216 Gr WCB
 
Carbon Steel
Alloy
High-Temp
A335 Gr P1 A234 Gr WP1 A182 Gr F1 A217 Gr WC1 A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
A335 Gr P11 A234 Gr WP11 A182 Gr F11 A217 Gr WC6
A335 Gr P12 A234 Gr WP12 A182 Gr F12 A217 Gr WC6
A335 Gr P22 A234 Gr WP22 A182 Gr F22 A217 Gr WC9
A335 Gr P5 A234 Gr WP5 A182 Gr F5 A217 Gr C5
A335 Gr P9 A234 Gr WP9 A182 Gr F9 A217 Gr C12
 
Carbon Steel
Alloy
Low-Temp
A333 Gr 6 A420 Gr WPL6 A350 Gr LF2 A352 Gr LCB A320 Gr L7
A194 Gr 7
A333 Gr 3 A420 Gr WPL3 A350 Gr LF3 A352 Gr LC3
 
Austenitic
Stainless
Steel
A312 Gr TP304 A403 Gr WP304 A182 Gr F304 A182 Gr F304 A193 Gr B8
A194 Gr 8
A312 Gr TP316 A403 Gr WP316 A182 Gr F316 A182 Gr F316
A312 Gr TP321 A403 Gr WP321 A182 Gr F321 A182 Gr F321
A312 Gr TP347 A403 Gr WP347 A182 Gr F347 A182 Gr F347

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