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Materials for Pipe Flanges (ASTM)

The most common materials for pipe flanges (forged grades) are: ASTM A105 (carbon steel high temperature to match A53/A106/API 5L pipes), A350 Grades LF1/2/3 (carbon steel low temperature to match A333 pipes), A694 Grades F42 to F80 (high yield carbon steel to match API 5L pipe grades), ASTM A182 Grades F5 to F91 (alloy steel flanges to match A335 pipes), A182 Grade F304/316 (stainless steel flanges to match A312 SS pipes), A182 Gr. F44/F51/F53/F55 (duplex and super duplex to match A790/A928 pipes) and various nickel alloy grades (Inconel, Incoloy, Hastelloy, Monel).

CARBON STEEL FLANGES

The chemical composition and the mechanical properties of the three main carbon steel flanges material grades:

  • ASTM A105 (high-temperature carbon steel) to match A53, A106, API 5L carbon steel pipes
  • ASTM A350 LF1, LF2, LF3 (low-temperature carbon steel) to match ASTM A333 pipes
  • ASTM A694 F42, F52, F60, F65 (high-yield carbon steel to match API 5L X42, X52, X60, and X65 steel pipes

Carbon Steel Flange Materials

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASTM A105, A350, A694

ASTM A105 (High-temperature carbon steel flange material)

C Mn P S Si Cu Ni Cr Mo V
A105 0.60 0.10
0.35 1.05 0.035 0.040 0.35 0.40 0.40 0.30 0.12 0.08

ASTM A350 (Low-Temperature carbon steel flange material)

C% Mn% Si% S% P% Cr% Ni%
A350 LF1 0.30 max 0.6/1.35 .15/.30 .040 max .035 max 0.30 max 0.40 max
A350 LF2 0.30 max 0.6/1.35 .15/.30 .040 max .035 max 0.30 max 0.40 max
A350 LF3 0.20 max 0.9 .20/.35 .040 max .035 max 0.30 max 3.3/3.7
ASTM A694 (High-yield carbon steel flanges)
C Mn P S Si
ASTM A694 F42 0.26-0.265 1.60-1.64 0.025-0.030 0.025-0.030 0.15-0.35
ASTM A694 F52 0.26-0.265 1.60-1.64 0.025-0.030 0.025-0.030 0.15-0.35
ASTM A694 F60 0.26-0.265 1.60-1.64 0.025-0.030 0.025-0.030 0.15-0.35
ASTM A694 F65 0.26-0.265 1.60-1.64 0.025-0.030 0.025-0.030 0.15-0.35

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES A105, A350, A694

ASTM A105 (High-temperature carbon steel flange material)

Property ASTM A105 ASTM A350-LF2
Tensile Strength Min, psi 70,000 70,000-95,000
Tensile Strength Min, N/mm² 485 485-655
Yield Strength Min, psi 36,000 36,000
Yield Strength Min, N/mm² 250 250
Elongation (%) 22 22
Reduction of Area (%) 30 30
Hardness, maximum 187 15/12 ft-lbs
CVN at -50℉ 20/16 joules

ASTM A694 (High-yield carbon steel flanges)

ASTM A694 Flange Material Grade Min Yield Strength (0.2 % Offset), in ksi [MPa] MinTensile Strength Elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, min %
in ksi [MPa]
A694 F42 42 [290] 60 [415] 20
A694 F46 46 [315] 60 [415] 20
A694 F48 48 [330] 62 [425] 20
A694 F50 50 [345] 64 [440] 20
A694 F52 52 [360] 66 [455] 20
A694 F56 56 [385] 68 [470] 20
A694 F60 60 [415] 75 [515] 20
A694 F65 65 [450] 77 [530] 20
A694 F70 70 [485] 82 [565] 18

ALLOY STEEL FLANGES

Alloy flange materials (chrome-moly) have higher chrome and molybdenum content than carbon steel flanges. Alloy steel flange materials suit high temperature and high-pressure applications and improved resistance to corrosion when compared to regular carbon steel flanges grades.

Alloy Steel Flange Materials
alloy steel flanges ASTM A182

ASTM A182 alloy flanges are extremely ductile, strong and tough and easy to weld and offer oxidation and scaling resistance. These grades match with ASTM A335 alloy steel pipes.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASTM A182 F5, F9, F11, F22

ELEMENT & PROPERTIES LOW ALLOY STEEL MEDIUM ALLOY STEEL
F11 CL2 F22 CL3 F5 F9
CARBON 0.10-0.20 0.05-0.15 0.15 MAX 0.15 MAX
MANGANESE 0.30-0.80 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60
PHOSPHORUS MAX 0.040 0.040 0.03 0.030
SULFUR MAX 0.040 0.040 0.03 0.030
SILICON 0.50-1.00 0.50 MAX 0.50 MAX 0.50-1.00
NICKEL MAX 0.50
CHROMIUM 1.00-1.50 2.00-2.50 4.00-6.00 8.0-10.0
MOLYBDENUM 0.44-0.65 0.87-1.13 0.44-0.65 0.90-1.10
OPPER MA
COLUMBIUM MAX
VANADIUM MAX

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES A182

ELEMENT & PROPERTIES LOW ALLOY STEEL MEDIUM ALLOY STEEL
F11 CL2 F22 CL3 F5 F9
TENSILE STRENGTH PSI (MPA) 70,000 (485) 75,000 (515) 70,000 (485) 85,000 (585)
YIELD STRENGTH PSI MIN 40,000 (275) 45,000 (310) 40,000 (275) 55,000 (380)
ELONGATION 2” % MIN 20 20 20 20
REDUCTION AREA % MIN 30 30 35 40
HARDNESS (HB) MAX* 143 ~ 207 156 ~ 207 143 ~ 217 179 ~ 217

Recommended service for alloy steel flange material grades ASTM A182:

ASTM A182 ALLOY STEEL FLANGE TRADE DESIGNATION RECOMMENDED SERVICE
A182 F1 C-1/2 Mo Low Alloy Steel Non-corrosive applications Including water, oil, and gases at temperatures between -29 ~ 593ºC* (Not prolonged use > 470ºC).
A182 F2 0.75% Ni; Mo; 0.75% Cr Low Alloy Steel Non-corrosive applications including water, oil, and gases at temperatures F2:-29ºC ~ 538ºC, WC5: -29ºC ~ 575ºC
A182 F11 1 1/4% Chrome; 1/2% Moly Low Alloy Steel Non-corrosive applications including water, oil, and gases at temperatures between -30ºC (-20ºF) and +593ºC (+1100ºF).
A182 F22 2 1/4% Chrome Low Alloy Steel Non-corrosive applications including water, oil, and gases at temperatures between -30ºC (-20ºF) and +593ºC (+1100ºF).
A182 F5/F5a 5% Chrome; 1/2% Moly, Medium Alloy Steel Mild corrosive or erosive applications as well as non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -30ºC (-20ºF) and +650ºC (+1200ºF).
A182 F9 9% Chrome; 1% Moly, Medium Alloy Steel Mild corrosive or erosive applications as well as non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -30ºC (-20ºF) and +650ºC (+1200ºF).
A182 F91 9% Chrome; 1% Moly; V-N, Medium Alloy Steel Mild corrosive or erosive applications as well as non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -30ºC (-20ºF) and +650ºC (+1200ºF).

STAINLESS STEEL FLANGES

The key elements that differentiate stainless steel materials for flanges, compared to other grades, are the Nickel (Ni), Chrome (Cr), and Molybdenum content (Mo). The price for these metals fluctuates daily on the London Metal Exchange (Nickel, Moly) and on the ferroalloy market (ferrochrome).

Stainless Steel Flange Materials ASTM A182
Stainless steel flanges ASTM A182

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASTM A182 F304/F316/F321

ASTM A182 Stainless Steel Flanges Materials Composition, %
ASTM A182 GRADE C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Nb Ti Others
F304(1) 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-11.0 18.0-20.0
F304H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-11.0 18.0-20.0
F304L(1) 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-13.0 18.0-20.0
F304N(2) 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-10.5 18.0-20.0
F304LN(2) 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 8.0-10.5 18.0-20.0
F309H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 12.0-15.0 22.0-24.0
F310 0.25 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 19.0-22.0 24.0-26.0
F310H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 19.0-22.0 24.0-26.0
F310MoLN 0.030 2.0 0.030 0.015 0.40 21.0-23.0 24.0-26.0 2.0-3.0 N 0.10-0.16
F316 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 10.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0
F316H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 10.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0
F316L(1) 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 10.0-15.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0
F316N(2) 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 11.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0
F316LN(2) 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 11.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0
F316Ti 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 10.0-14.0 16.0-18.0 2.0-3.0 (3) N 0.10 max
F317 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 11.0-15.0 18.0-20.0 3.0-4.0
F317L 0.030 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 11.0-15.0 18.0-20.0 3.0-4.0
F321 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-12.0 17.0-19.0 (4)
F321H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-12.0 17.0-19.0 (5)
F347 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-13.0 17.0-20.0 (6)
F347H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-13.0 17.0-20.0 (7)
F348 0.08 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-13.0 17.0-20.0 (6) Co 0.20
Ta 0.10
F348H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.045 0.030 1.0 9.0-13.0 17.0-20.0 (7) Co 0.20
Ta 0.10

Notes:

  1. Grades F304, F304L, F316, and F316L shall have a maximum Nitrogen of 0.10%.
  2. Grades F304N, F316N, F304LN, and F316LN shall have a Nitrogen of 0.10 to 0.16%.
  3. Grade F316Ti shall have a Titanium content five times above the Carbon plus Nitrogen and not more than 0.70%.
  4. Grade F321 shall have a Titanium content five times above the Carbon and not more than 0.70%.
  5. Grade F321H shall have a Titanium content four times above the Carbon and not more than 0.70%.
  6. Grades F347 and F348 shall have a Niobium content ten times above the Carbon and not more than 1.10%.
  7. Grades F347H and F348H shall have a Niobium content above than eight times the Carbon and not more than 1.10%.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES A182 F304/F316/F321

ASTM A182 Grade Minimum Tensile Strength
in MPa
Minimum Yield point
in Mpa
Minimum Elongation
in %
Minimum Reduction of in
min, %
ASTM A182 F304 515 205 30 50
ASTM A182 F304L 485 170 30 50
ASTM A182 F316 515 205 30 50
ASTM A182 F316L 485 170 30 50
ASTM A182 F321 515 205 30 50

Recommended service for stainless steel flange materials:

MATERIAL MATERIAL GROUP RECOMMENDED SERVICE
A182-F304 18% Cr, 8% Ni Stainless Steel Corrosive services and atmospheres from -450°F to 1000°F (-268°C to 537°C)
A182-F316 18% Cr, 8% Ni, 2% Mo Stainless Steel High resistance to corrosion from -450°F to 1000°F (-268°C to 537°C).

ASTM vs. EN STAINLESS STEEL FLANGE MATERIALS

Flanges Material Grades: Comparison European and American Standards
Material number EN ASTM
Stainless Steel Flange Materials
1.4541 X 6 CrNiTi 18 10 X6CrNiTi18-10 A 182 Grade F321
1.4571 X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 A 182 Grade F316Ti
1.4301 X 5 CrNi 18 10 X5CrNi18-10 A 182 Grade F304
1.4306 X 2 CrNi 19 11 A 182 Grade F304L
1.4307 – X2CrNi18-9 A 182 Grade F304L
1.4401 X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 A 182 Grade F316
1.4404 X 2 CrNiMo 17 13 2 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 A 182 Grade F316L
1.4462 X 2 CrNiMoN 22 5 3 X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 A 182 Grade F51 (Duplex)
1.4529 X 1 NiCrMoCuN 25 20 6 X1NiCrMoCuN25-20-7 UNS N 08926
1.4539 X 1 NiCrMoCuN 25 20 5 X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 A 182 Grade F904L
1.4547 – X1CrNiMoCuN20-18-7 UNS S 3125

DUPLEX FLANGES

Duplex steel (ASTM A182 2205) is an extremely corrosion resistant, work hardenable stainless steel, whose microstructure consists of a mixture of austenite and ferrite phases.

Duplex Flange ASTM A182 UNS S31803 UNS S32205
Duplex Flange ASTM A182 UNS S31803 UNS S32205

Due to this particular chemical and physical composition, duplex stainless steel UNS S31803 features the properties characteristic of both types of stainless steel materials (ferritic and austenitic).

Generally speaking, duplex stainless steel is way tougher than ferritic stainless steels, has a superior strength than austenitic steels (series 300 and 400) and has superior resistance to corrosion when compared to SS304 and SS316 (high intragranular corrosion, also in chloride and sulfide environments).

Whilst austenitic stainless steels are non-magnetic, duplex stainless steel shows magnetic properties.

Duplex and super duplex flanges match with ASTM A790 seamless pipes (or A928 welded duplex pipes).

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASTM A182 DUPLEX AND SUPER DUPLEX

%

Duplex 2205
(ASTM A182 UNS S31803 – UNS S32205)

Super Duplex
ASTM A182 UNS S32750 – 32760)

C

0-0.03

0.03 max

Mn

2.0

1.5

Si

1.0

0.8

P

0-0.03

0.035

S

0-0.02

0.02

Cr

21-23

24-26

Mo

2.5-3.5

3.0-5.0

Ni

4.5-6.5

5.5-8.0

N

0.08-0.2

0.2-0.35

Cu

0.5-3.0

The most widely used grade for Duplex flange is 2205, due to its superior resistance to corrosion and mechanical strength.

The designation “2205” is related to the chemical composition of this material, which features 22% of chromium and 5% of nickel.

Super Duplex flange show an even superior strength and a higher corrosion resistance than standard duplex steel (and austenitic grades, of course).

The main difference between a duplex and a super duplex grade is the addition of copper to the alloy (in addition to increased amounts of Chromium, Moly, and Nickel).

The addition of copper gives Super Duplex Stainless Steel an improved resistance to hot chlorides and strong reducing acids, like sulphuric acid, compared to a standard Duplex grade.

Whilst UNS S31803, UNS 32205 (duplex) and UNS S32750, UNS S32760 are standard designations, most manufacturers of superalloys attribute proprietary names to these steels (example UR52N+ is a Usinor/Arcelor Super Duplex steel, Ferralium, Zeron, Sandvik SAF 2205 22Cr, etc).

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES A182 DUPLEX AND SUPER DUPLEX

Mechanical Properties

Duplex 2205
(ASTM A182 UNS S31803 – UNS S32205)

Super Duplex
ASTM A182 UNS S32750 – 32760)

Tensile Strength (in MPa)

620

770

Proof Stress 0.2% (in MPa)

450

550

A5 Elongation (in %)

25

25

Physical Attribute

Duplex 2205
(ASTM A182 UNS S31803 – UNS S32205)

Super Duplex
ASTM A182 UNS S32750 – 32760)

Density (g.cm3)

7.805

7.810

Modulus of Elasticity (GPa)

200

205

Electrical Resistivity (Ω.m)

0.085×10-6

0.085×10-6

Thermal Conductivity (W/m.K)

19 at 100°C

17 at 100°C

Thermal Expansion (m/m.K)

13.7×10-6 to 100°C

13.5×10-6 to 200°C

The significant addition of Chromium in Duplex Steel grades, that protects the alloy against corrosion, is a source of steel embrittlement at temperatures over about 300°C. However, at lower temperatures duplex steels show better ductility properties than ferritic and martensitic stainless steels (they can easily be used at a temperature below -50 C°).

NICKEL ALLOY FLANGES

ASTM SPECIFICATIONS FOR NICKEL ALLOY FLANGES

ASTM B160  Nickel 200 Flange
ASTM B166  Inconel 600 Flange
ASTM B564  Inconel 625 Flange
ASTM B425  Incoloy 800 Flange
ASTM B564  Incoloy 825 Flange
ASTM B564  Monel K400 Flange
ASTM B564  Hastelloy C276 Flange

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION NICKEL-ALLOY FLANGES

Superalloy Grade UNS Equivalent Alloy Composition
C Mn S Si Cr Ni Mo Cu Ti Fe
Nickel 200 N02200 0.08 0.18 0.005 0.18 99.5(a) 0.13 0.2
Nickel 201 N02201 0.01 0.18 0.005 0.18 99.6(a) 0.13 0.2
Monel 400 N04400 0.15 1 0.012 0.25 66.5(a) 31.5 1.25
Monel K-500 N05500 0.13 0.75 0.005 0.25 66.5(a) 29.5 0.6 1
Hastelloy B N10665 0.05 max 1 1 1 61 28 5
Hastelloy D 0.12 0.9 9.25 1 82 3 2
Inconel 600 N06600 0.08 0.5 0.008 0.25 15.5 76.0(a) 0.25 8
Inconel 800 N08800 0.05 0.75 0.008 0.5 21 32.5 0.38 0.38 46
Hastelloy C-276 N10276 0.01 0.5 0.02 0.03 15.5 57 16 5.5
Inconel 625 N06025 0.05 0.25 0.008 0.25 21.5 61.0(a) 9 0.2 2.5
Incoloy 825 N08825 0.03 0.5 0.015 0.25 21.5 42 3 2.25 0.9 30
Hastelloy G N06030 0.03 1.5 0.02 0.5 22.25 44 6.5 2 19.5
20Cb-3 N08020 0.04 1 0.02 0.5 20 34 2.5 3.5

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES NICKEL-ALLOY FLANGES

Superalloy grade UNS Equivalent Yield Strength (in 
ksi)
Tensile Strength (in ksi) Elongation % Rockwell Brinell
Nickel 200 N02200 15 55 35 90-120
Nickel 201 N02201 12 50 35 90-120
Monel 400 N04400 25 70 35 110-149
Monel K-500 N05500 100 140 17 265-346
Hastelloy B-2 N10665 51 110 40 C22
Hastelloy D-205 49 114 57 C30-39
Inconel 600 N06600 30 80 35 120-170
Inconel 800 N08800 30 75 30 120-184
Hastelloy C-276 N10276 60 115 50 184
Inconel 625 N06025 39 98 30 180
Incoloy 825 N08825 35 85 30 120-180
Hastelloy G-30 N06030 51 100 56
20Cb-3 N08020 35 80 30 B84-90 160

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